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Environmental and Resource Economics

, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 221–257 | Cite as

Empirical Analysis of National Income and SO2 Emissions in Selected European Countries

  • Anil MarkandyaEmail author
  • Alexander Golub
  • Suzette Pedroso-Galinato
Article

Abstract

The linkage between per capita GDP and sulfur emissions for 12 Western European countries was analyzed over a period of more than 150 years. The analysis also looked at the impact of air pollution regulations on the shape of the income–pollution relationship. At both the aggregate and country levels, we find an inverted U-shaped relationship and the estimated turning points of most countries are plausible. In addition, environmental regulations are found to lower the EKC and they can also shift the turning point of the curve. In some cases, the shift is to the left and in a few to the right.

Key words

environmental Kuznets curve panel data regulation sulfur dioxide Western Europe 

JEL Classification

C23 O11 Q25 Q28 

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Notes

Acknowledgements

A version of this paper was presented at the Environmental and Resource Economists’ Conference in Budapest, in June 2004. We would like to thank participants there for useful comments, which improved the paper. We also thank our colleague Tim Taylor for his suggestions on how to interpret the results. Finally, we thank two anonymous referees who provided valuable comments that have also resulted in a better final product. No one apart from ourselves is, of course, responsible for any errors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anil Markandya
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Alexander Golub
    • 3
  • Suzette Pedroso-Galinato
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Economics and International DevelopmentUniversity of BathClaverton DownUK
  2. 2.Foundation Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)MilanItaly
  3. 3.Environmental DefenseWashingtonUSA
  4. 4.The World BankWashingtonUSA

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