Self-reported TPACK of teacher educators across six countries in Asia and Europe


The initial technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) model was theorised on seven clearly identified factors. However, many studies have failed to empirically identify these seven factors, and elements influencing TPACK level, such as national context, gender, and age, remain unclear. The study is focused on teacher educators’ TPACK as one of the most important elements in schoolteacher training. The main goals were to test the validity of the initial TPACK seven-factor model in a cross-national analysis context and to identify factors influencing the TPACK perception. The sample was composed of 574 teacher educators coming from a total of eight schools of educational institutions from six countries. A 26-item questionnaire, based on a four-point Likert scale, investigated the seven factors of the TPACK model as independent scales. It was administered online and anonymously. A confirmatory factor analysis using the robust maximum likelihood method and Kruskal–Wallis chi-squared tests were performed. The study showed four major results: 1) a relative stability of the seven-factor model structure across countries; 2) the relative differences of university teachers’ TPACK perceptions across six countries in Europe and Asia; 3) the dependence of age and TPACK factors; and 4) an independence of gender/academic level and TPACK.

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The project ‘Blended Learning Courses for teacher educators between Asia and Europe’ (n°: 574130-EPP-1-2016-1-FR-EPPKA2-CBHE-JP) is supported by the European Commission Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA) - Erasmus+ Higher Education – International Capacity Building programme.

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Correspondence to Jérémy Castéra.

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Castéra, J., Marre, C.C., Yok, M.C.K. et al. Self-reported TPACK of teacher educators across six countries in Asia and Europe. Educ Inf Technol (2020) doi:10.1007/s10639-020-10106-6

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  • Cross-national study
  • University teachers
  • CFA