Advertisement

Flipped learning as situated practice: A contrastive narrative inquiry in an EFL classroom

  • Khadijeh AghaeiEmail author
  • Mojtaba Rajabi
  • Koo Yew Lie
  • Fereshte Ajam
Article
  • 42 Downloads

Abstract

The traditional lecture-oriented teaching is still the norm in English as a foreign language education courses, but an innovative teaching model, expedited by recent advances in technology, becomes often popular across non-English-speaking subjects. The new model flips the usual classroom paradigm, in which students learn primary concepts outside classroom and class time is reserved for more active problem-based learning. Discussion of model and its impact are more, on the whole, theory-driven than data-informed to consider qualitative feedback to give context before drawing conclusion. Little research has so far been undertaken to rigorously consider class practitioners’ readings on flipped learning experience in EFL discursive contexts in a contrastive manner. In so doing, this study employed a narrative inquiry, using data from interviews and observational field notes. Findings show that that flipped learning is situated practice. The teacher perceived the class challenging due to workload of developing flipped learning materials, inadequate inside-classroom infrastructure, over reliance on student and old-fashioned classroom layout. Likewise, the students found flipped activities time consuming, blaming inadequate outside-classroom infrastructure and teacher’s unavailability for flipped outside class activities. Rather, the teacher valued this model strengthening routs towards transparency for students’ parents on their educational progress. Students appreciated the ubiquitous, more self-paced and autonomous learning nature of flipped model as it makes them more deeply dive into the content. The findings have ramifications for raising awareness of the flipped learning complexities in learning practice.

Keywords

Flipped learning English as a foreign language Situated practice Narrative inquiry 

Notes

References

  1. Baepler, P. (2014). It's not about seat time: Blending, flipping, and efficiency in active learning classrooms. Computers and Education, 78, 227–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bleakley, A. (2005). Stories as data, data as stories: Making sense of narrative inquiry in clinical education. Medical Education, 39, 534–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bormann, J. (2014). Affordances of flipped learning and its effects on student engagement and achievement.Google Scholar
  4. Butt, M. (2014). Result-oriented e-government evaluation: Citizen’s perspective. Webology, 11(2), 1.Google Scholar
  5. Clandinin, D. J., & Connelly, F. M. (2000). Narrative inquiry: Experience and story in qualitative research. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  6. Cockrum, T. (2013). Flipping your English class to reach all learners: Strategies and lesson plans. Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Creswell, J. W., & Miller, D. L. (2000). Determining validity in qualitative inquiry. Theory Into Practice, 39(3), 124–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Davies, R. S., Dean, D. L., & Ball, N. (2013). Flipping the classroom and instructional technology integration in a college-level information systems spreadsheet course. Educational Technology Research and Development, 61(4), 563–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Doman, E., & Webb, M. (2017). The flipped experience for Chinese university students studying English as a foreign language. TESOL Journal, 8(1), 102–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Enfield, J. (2013). Looking at the impact of the flipped classroom model of instruction on undergraduate multimedia students at CSUN. TechTrends, 57(6), 14–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Farah, M. (2014). The impact of using flipped classroom instruction on the writing performance of twelfth grade female Emirati students in the applied technology high school(ATHS), Doctoral dissertation, The British University in Dubai (BUiD).Google Scholar
  12. Findlay-Thompson, S., & Mombourquette, P. (2014). Evaluation of a flipped classroom in an undergraduate business course. Business Education & Accreditation, 6(1), 63–71.Google Scholar
  13. Foertsch, J., Moses, G., Strikwerda, J., & Litzkow, M. (2002). Reversing the lecture/homework paradigm using eTEACH® web-based streaming video software. Journal of Engineering Education, 91(3), 267–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fulton, K. (2012). The flipped classroom: Transforming education at Byron high school: A Minnesota high school with severe budget constraints enlisted YouTube in its successful effort to boost math competency scores. THE Journal (Technological Horizons in Education), 39(3), 18.Google Scholar
  15. Gaughan, J. E. (2014). The flipped classroom in world history. The History Teacher, 47(2), 221–244.Google Scholar
  16. Gilboy, M. B., Heinerichs, S., & Pazzaglia, G. (2015). Enhancing student engagement using the flipped classroom. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 47(1), 109–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hamdan, N., McKnight, P., McKnight, K., & Artfstrom, K. (2013). The flipped learning model: A white paper based on the literature review. Flipped Learning Network. 1–17.Google Scholar
  18. Hughes, H. (2012). Introduction to flipping the college classroom. In EdMedia+ Innovate Learning (pp.2434-2438). Association for the Advancement of computing in education (AACE).Google Scholar
  19. Jones, P., Jones, A., Packham, G., Thomas, B., & Miller, C. (2007). It’s all in the mix: The evolution of a blended e-learning model for an undergraduate degree. Journal of Systems and Information Technology, 9(2), 124–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Karimi, M., & Hamzavi, R. (2017). The effect of flipped model of instruction on EFL learners’ reading comprehension: Learners’ attitudes in focus. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 8(1), 95–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kim, M. K., Kim, S. M., Khera, O., & Getman, J. (2014). The experience of three flipped classrooms in an urban university: An exploration of design principles. The Internet and Higher Education, 22, 37–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lage, M. J., Platt, G. J., Treglia, M. (2000). Inverting the classroom: A gateway to creating an inclusive learning environment. The Journal of Economic Education, 31(1), 30–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lemmer, C. A. (2013). A view from the flip side: Using the inverted classroom to enhance the legal information literacy of the international LL. M. student. Law Library Journal, 105, 461.Google Scholar
  24. McLaughlin, J. E., White, P. J., Khanova, J., & Yuriev, E. (2016). Flipped classroom implementation: A case report of two higher education institutions in the United States and Australia. Computers in the Schools, 33(1), 24–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McLaughlin, J. E., Griffin, L. M., Esserman, D. A., Davidson, C. A., Glatt, D. M., Roth, M. T., & Mumper, R. J. (2013). Pharmacy student engagement, performance, and perception in a flipped satellite classroom. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 77(9), 196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Morin, M. B., Kecskemety, K. M., Harper, K. A., & Clingan, P. A. (2013). The inverted classroom in a first-year engineering course. Age, 23, 1.Google Scholar
  27. Murphree, D. (2015). Flipping the history classroom with an embedded writing consultant: Synthesizing inverted and WAC paradigms in a university history survey course. The Social Studies, 106(5), 218–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ostovar-Namaghi, S. A., Norouzi, S., & Hosseini, M. (2015). Exploring the professional beliefs of an EFL teacher: A narrative inquiry. The Qualitative Report, 20(12), 1995–2009.Google Scholar
  29. Papadopoulos, C., Santiago-Román, A., & Portela, G. (2010). Work in progress—Developing and implementing an inverted classroom for engineering statics. In 2010 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE) (pp. F3F-1). IEEE.Google Scholar
  30. Rowe, M., Frantz, J., & Bozelak, W. (2013). Beyond knowledge and skills: The use of a Delphi study to develop a technology-mediated teaching strategy. BMC Medical Education, 13(1), 51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sohrabi, B., & Iraj, H. (2016). Implementing flipped classroom using digital media: A comparison of two demographically different groups’ perceptions. Computers in Human Behavior, 60, 514–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Strayer, J. F. (2012). How learning in an inverted classroom influences cooperation, innovation and task orientation. Learning Environments Research, 15(2), 171–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Talbert, R. (2014). Inverting the linear algebra classroom. Primus, 24(5), 361–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tune, J. D., Sturek, M., & Basile, D. P. (2013). Flipped classroom model improves graduate student performance in cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal physiology. Advances in Physiology Education, 37(4), 316–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Webb, M., Doman, E., & Pusey, K. (2014). Flipping a Chinese university EFL course: What students and teachers think of the model. The Journal of Asia TEFL, 11(4), 53–87.Google Scholar
  36. Willey, K., & Gardner, A. P. (2013). Flipping your classroom without flipping out. In SEFI-Annual Conference of European Society for Engineering Education. SEFI.Google Scholar
  37. Salimi, A., & Yousefzadeh, M. (2015). The effect of flipped learning (revised learning) on Iranian students’ learning outcomes. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 6(5), 209–213.Google Scholar
  38. Zappe, S., Leicht, R., Messner, J., Litzinger, T., & Lee, H. W. (2009). " Flipping" the classroom to explore active learning in a large undergraduate course. In ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khadijeh Aghaei
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mojtaba Rajabi
    • 1
  • Koo Yew Lie
    • 2
  • Fereshte Ajam
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Foreign Languages, Faculty of Humanities and Physical EducationGonbad Kavous UniversityGonbad KavousIran
  2. 2.School of Oriental and African StudiesUniversity of LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Islamic Azad University Gorgan BranchGorganIran

Personalised recommendations