Comparative evaluation of virtual and augmented reality for teaching mathematics in primary education

  • Eleni Demitriadou
  • Kalliopi-Evangelia Stavroulia
  • Andreas LanitisEmail author


Primary school students often find it difficult to understand the differences between two dimensional and three-dimensional geometric shapes. Taking advantage of the ability of virtual and augmented reality to visualize 3D objects, we investigate the potential of using virtual and augmented reality technologies for teaching the lesson of geometric solids to primary school children. As part of the study 30 fourth, fifth and sixth class primary school students were divided into three groups that include a control group and two experimental groups. The first and second experimental groups used dedicated virtual and augmented reality applications to learn about geometric solids, while students from the control group used traditional printed material as part of the learning process. The results indicate that the implementation of new technologies in education of virtual and augmented reality improve interactivity and student interest in mathematics education, contributing to more efficient learning and understanding of mathematical concepts when compared to traditional teaching methods. No significant difference was found between virtual and augmented reality technologies with regard to the efficiency of the methods that contribute to the learning of mathematics, suggesting that both virtual and augmented reality display similar potential for educational activities in Mathematics.


Virtual reality Augmented reality Mathematics Geometric solids 



This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 739578 complemented by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus through the Directorate General for European Programmes, Coordination and Development.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Visual Media Computing Lab, Department of Multimedia and Graphic ArtsCyprus University of TechnologyLimassolCyprus
  2. 2.Research Centre on Interactive Media Smart Systems and Emerging TechnologiesNicosiaCyprus

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