Education and Information Technologies

, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp 1035–1055 | Cite as

Effects of reciprocal peer tutoring and direct learning environment on sophomores’ academic achievement in electronic and computer fundamentals

  • Jimoh Bakare
  • Chibueze Tobias OrjiEmail author


Some of the factors that influence students’ academic achievement, and retention of learning include teacher’s mode of teaching, his/her experiences and personality, workload, ability to make use of the available resource materials for teaching and learning. However, literature and some researchers have made it known that adopting students’ driven teaching approach like reciprocal peer tutoring (RPT) has a strong and positive impact on students’ achievement. The study aimed at determining the effects of reciprocal peer tutoring and direct learning environment on sophomores’ academic achievement in electronic and computer fundamentals in Nigeria. The study adopted a quasi-experimental design with non-equivalent groups of intact classes. The participants for the study were 107 s year Degree students made up of 76 males and 31 females drawn from the two public universities in the State. The instruments used for data collection were Electronic and Computer Fundamentals Achievement Test (ECFAT) and Electronic and Computer Fundamentals Interest Inventory (ECFII). The internal consistency of the ECFII was also determined using the Cronbach alpha reliability method. The test scores generated from the pre-test and post-test using ECFAT was analyzed using Mean and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) to test the three null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. It was found that Reciprocal Peer Tutoring (RPT) is more effective than the direct learning in improving sophomores’ achievement in electronic and computer fundamentals. There was a significant effect of gender on students’ achievement, interest and retention of learning in electronic and computer fundamentals. Students learn faster and master skills better when they are allowed to participate actively in the class by interacting freely with the lecturers and their peers, work in groups and perform practical projects together. The adoption of the reciprocal peer tutoring generally improves the academic achievement of students in electronic and computer fundamentals.


Reciprocal peer tutoring Direct instruction environment Achievement Interest and retention 



The researchers are grateful to the Management of the University of Lagos and Yaba College of Technology for allowing their students to partake in this study. The researchers also appreciate the lecturers and students of technical/vocational education in the two institutions who agreed to be part of the study.

Authors’ contributions

Bakare and Orji conceived the idea that gave rise to the title, wrote the introduction and collected data for the study.

Bakare wrote the methodology.

Orji carried out the data analysis and discussion and still corresponding for the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Competing interests

I confirm that I have read Springer Open’s guidance on competing interests and have included a statement indicating that none of the authors have any competing interests in the manuscript.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Industrial Technical Education, Faculty of Vocational and Technical EducationUniversity of NigeriaNsukkaNigeria

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