Education and Information Technologies

, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 385–406 | Cite as

Teachers’ perceptions of out-of-class communication, teacher-student relationship, and classroom environment

  • Amir Abd Elhay
  • Arnon Hershkovitz


Communication between students and teachers is usually extended beyond the classroom’s time and space. This communication, referred to as out-of-class communication (OCC), may impact students’ academic, social, and emotional development. Today, OCC is facilitated via social media and instant messaging services, which may affect its nature. This quantitative study (N = 155) aims to analyze the impact of WhatsApp™-based OCC between middle- and high-school teachers and their students on two variables that are key to learning and teaching: Teacher-student relationship and classroom environment. The data was collected through teachers’ self-reported questionnaires. Overall, we find that despite manifested somewhat differently from traditional OCC, teachers’ use of WhatsApp for OCC is also associated with better relationship with students and with better classroom environment.


Out-of-class communication Teacher-student relationship Classroom environment Instant messaging Online social networks 


Compliance with ethical standards

Upon acceptance of this manuscript, the authors will make efforts to share the data collected in this research. Data will be shared via an open-access platform of our institution.

Informed consent

All data was collected without any identifying details of the participants. Being adults (i.e., over 18y/o), participants have read and signed an informed consent form.

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest that might have affected data collection and/or reporting.

Supplementary material

10639_2018_9782_MOESM1_ESM.docx (23 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 22 kb)


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education, School of EducationTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael

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