Education and Information Technologies

, Volume 23, Issue 5, pp 2111–2139 | Cite as

Effects of intensive use of computers in secondary school on gender differences in attitudes towards ICT: A systematic review

  • Roser Cussó-Calabuig
  • Xavier Carrera Farran
  • Xavier Bosch-Capblanch


There is a wealth of interventions focusing on the intensive use of computers in secondary schools, largely aiming at improving students’ performance. However, global evidence on the effects of the use of computers on attitudinal outcomes has not been synthesised so far. Taking into account that the differences in the attitudes of boys and girls regarding the use of computers are one of the factors described as causes of the low number of girls following ICT studies, the aim of this article is to review the evidence on the effects of intensive use of computers in schools on gender differences in attitudes outcomes: anxiety, enjoyment, self-confidence and self-efficacy. Searches generated a total of 740 citations of which 59 were identified as relevant and nine were finally included. The methodological quality of included studies was poor to moderate. The results suggest that despite the intensive use of computers, boys are favoured in computer anxiety, self-confidence and self-efficacy; and suggest no differences in computer enjoyment. There is no evidence that intensive use of computers reduce gender differences in these outcomes. Further policy recommendations should be rooted on robust evaluations, which take into account implementations parameters, as well.


Gender differences Secondary education ICT Computer anxiety Computer self-efficacy Computer self-confidence Computer enjoyment 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pedagogy and PsychologyUniversity of Lleida. Faculty of EducationLleidaSpain
  2. 2.Swiss Tropical and Public Health InstituteBaselSwitzerland
  3. 3.Universität BaselBaselSwitzerland

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