Education and Information Technologies

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 495–514 | Cite as

Why teachers use digital learning materials: The role of self-efficacy, subjective norm and attitude

  • Frederik Van Acker
  • Hans van Buuren
  • Karel Kreijns
  • Marjan Vermeulen


Although Information and Communication Technology (ICT) seems a promising tool in an educational context, many teachers are reluctant to integrate it in their daily practice. A large scale survey was undertaken amongst primary and secondary school teachers in the Netherlands to explore possible determinants of the educational use of digital learning materials (DLMs) in order to develop interventions to reduce teachers’ reluctance to use ICT and more specifically to stimulate the use of DLMs. Basing on the Integrative Model of Behaviour Prediction it was conjectured that self-efficacy, attitude and subjective norm would take a central role in explaining the intention to use DLMs. Several other predictors were added to the conceptual model whose effects were hypothesized to be mediated by the three central variables. All conjectured relationships were found using mediation analysis on survey data from 1,484 teachers. Intention to use DLMs was most strongly determined by attitude, followed by self-efficacy. ICT skills was in its turn the strongest predictor of self-efficacy. Subjective norm played only a limited role in the intention to use DLMs. Basing on the outcome of this study, persuasive communication focusing on positive outcomes and skills based training seem appropriate interventions to promote a positive attitude towards DLM and improve self-efficacy in using DLMs.


Digital learning materials Attitude Self-efficacy Integrative model of behavior prediction Determinants of ICT use 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederik Van Acker
    • 1
  • Hans van Buuren
    • 1
  • Karel Kreijns
    • 1
  • Marjan Vermeulen
    • 1
  1. 1.Open Universiteit NederlandHeerlenNetherlands

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