Survival outcome and prognostic model of patients with colorectal cancer on phase 1 trials
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Background Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who progress on standard therapies may be eligible for phase I trials. To better delineate the risk-benefit ratio, we assessed toxicities, clinical outcomes and prognostic factors. Methods Records of mCRC patients on phase I trials at our institution over 18 years were reviewed. Univariable (UVA) and multivariable analyses (MVA) were undertaken and a prognostic model developed. Results There were 187 enrollments on 37 phase I trials. Median age was: 59 (29–83) years and number of prior therapies: 3 (0–8). The clinical benefit rate (CBR): response (5.6%) + stable disease, was 43.1%. Median progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was 7.7 weeks and 43.7 weeks, respectively. The MVA identified age > 60 years (HR 1.63, p < 0.004), albumin<3.5 g/dL (HR 3.69, p < 0.001), direct bilirubin>ULN (HR1.69, p < 0.01), and WBC ≥ 5.2 k/uL (HR 1.97, p < 0.001) as negative prognostic factors. A risk score based on the MVA revealed that patients with a score of 0–1 had an improved OS (58.7 weeks) compared to a score of 2 (49.9 weeks, p < 0.01) and 3 (14.1 weeks, p < 0.001). Conclusions Phase 1 trials may offer similar or better clinical outcome for mCRC patients than standard third line therapies; the prognostic model could assist in selecting appropriate patients.
KeywordsSurvival Colorectal cancer Phase I trials
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Each individual clinical trial from which data was extracted was approved by the ethics committee of Montefiore Medical Center. Each individual trial was performed in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments.
All patients entering the clinical trials have signed the informed consent document.
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