Investigational New Drugs

, Volume 36, Issue 5, pp 955–960 | Cite as

GLP overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and its inhibition induces leukemic cell death

  • Juliana Carvalho Alves-Silva
  • Juliana Lott de Carvalho
  • Doralina Amaral Rabello
  • Teresa Raquel Tavares Serejo
  • Eduardo Magalhaes Rego
  • Francisco Assis Rocha Neves
  • Antonio Roberto Lucena-Araujo
  • Fábio Pittella-Silva
  • Felipe Saldanha-Araujo


Background Heterodimeric methyltransferases GLP (EHMT1/KMT1D) and G9a (EHMT2/KMT1C) are two closely related enzymes that promote the monomethylation and dimethylation of histone H3 lysine 9. Dysregulation of their activity has been implicated in several types of human cancer. Patients and methods Here, in order to investigate whether GLP/G9a exerts any impact on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL), GLP/G9a expression levels were assessed in a cohort of 50 patients and the effects of their inhibition were verified for the viability of CLL cells. Also, qRT-PCR was used to investigate the transcriptional levels of GLP/G9a in CLL patients. In addition, patient samples were classified according to ZAP-70 protein expression by flow cytometry and according to karyotype integrity by cytogenetics analysis. Finally, a selective small molecule inhibitor for GLP/G9a was used to ascertain whether these methyltransferases influenced the viability of MEC-1 CLL cell lineage. Results mRNA analysis revealed that CLL samples had higher levels of GLP, but not G9a, when compared to non-leukemic controls. Interestingly, patients with unfavorable cytogenetics showed higher expression levels of GLP compared to patients with favorable karyotypes. More importantly, GLP/G9a inhibition markedly induced cell death in CLL cells. Conclusion Taken together, these results indicate that GLP is associated with a worse prognosis in CLL, and that the inhibition of GLP/G9a influences CLL cell viability. Altogether, the present data demonstrate that these methyltransferases can be potential markers for disease progression, as well as a promising epigenetic target for CLL treatment and the prevention of disease evolution.


Chronic lymphocytic leukemia GLP G9a UNC0646 Prognostic marker, cytogenetic abnormalities 



This study was supported by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Distrito Federal (FAPDF).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juliana Carvalho Alves-Silva
    • 1
    • 2
  • Juliana Lott de Carvalho
    • 3
  • Doralina Amaral Rabello
    • 1
  • Teresa Raquel Tavares Serejo
    • 2
  • Eduardo Magalhaes Rego
    • 4
  • Francisco Assis Rocha Neves
    • 2
  • Antonio Roberto Lucena-Araujo
    • 5
  • Fábio Pittella-Silva
    • 1
  • Felipe Saldanha-Araujo
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratório de Patologia Molecular do CâncerUniversidade de BrasíliaBrasíliaBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratório de Farmacologia MolecularUniversidade de BrasíliaBrasíliaBrazil
  3. 3.Laboratório de BiotecnologiaUniversidade Católica de BrasíliaBrasíliaBrazil
  4. 4.Laboratório de HematologiaUniversidade de São PauloRibeirão PretoBrazil
  5. 5.Laboratório de HematologiaUniversidade Federal de PernambucoRecifeBrazil

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