Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia under everolimus in two patients with metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors
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Background Everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor with immunosuppressive properties, is used in several types of advanced tumors. Materials and Methods We describe the first two cases of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients given everolimus for metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Results The first patient presented with respiratory symptoms in the context of grade 4 lymphopenia 2 weeks after starting everolimus; the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia was made post-mortem. After suspecting everolimus-related interstitial pneumonitis in the second patient, Pneumocystis jirovecii was detected, and cotrimoxazole therapy led to a favorable outcome. Conclusion Everolimus may induce pneumonitis, lymphopenia and opportunistic infections. The time from treatment initiation to opportunistic infection may be short. Risk factors in oncology deserve further identification in order to start prophylaxis without delay.