A novel Chk inhibitor, XL-844, increases human cancer cell radiosensitivity through promotion of mitotic catastrophe
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Check point kinases (Chk) play a major role in facilitating DNA repair upon radiation exposure. We tested the potency of a novel inhibitor of Chk1 and Chk2, XL-844 (provided by Exelixis Inc., CA, USA), to radiosensitize human cancer cells grown in culture and investigated the underlying mechanisms. HT-29 cells (a human colon cancer line) were exposed to XL-844, radiation, or both, and assessed for clonogenic cell survival. Treatment-dependent effects on phosphorylated forms of Chk proteins were assessed by Western blots. Further mechanistic investigations in HT-29 cells included cell cycle analysis by flowcytometry and assessment of DNA repair kinetics by immuno-cytochemistry (ICC) for nuclear appearance of the phosphorylated form of histone 2AX protein (γ-H2AX) staining. Cells undergoing mitotic catastrophe were identified by irregular pattern of mitotic spindle markers α and γ-tubulin staining by ICC. XL-844 enhanced radiosensitivity in a dose and schedule-dependent manner and the enhancement factor was 1.42 at 0.5 survival fraction. Mechanistically XL-844 abrogated radiation-induced Chk2 phosphorylation, induced pan-nuclear γ-H2AX, and prolonged the presence of radiation-induced γ-H2AX foci, and promoted mitotic catastrophe. In conclusion, our data showed that inhibition of Chk2 activity by XL-844 enhanced cancer cell radiosensitivity that was associated with inhibition of DNA repair and induction of mitotic catastrophe.
KeywordsRadiosensitivity Inhibitor of Check point kinases XL-844 Mitotic catastrophe Pan-nuclear γ-H2AX
This work was supported partly by Exelixis Inc., CA, USA (PI: U. Raju) and partly by a UICC ACSBI fellowship supplemented by the University of Zurich (O. Riesterer). We thank Peter Lamb Ph.D. (Exelixis Incorporation, San Francisco, CA) for his involvement in designing the experiments.
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