Chemopreventive efficacy of gallic acid, an antioxidant and anticarcinogenic polyphenol, against 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine induced rat colon carcinogenesis
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Colon cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries and its etiology is known to be a combination of hereditary, environmental, dietary factors and lack of physical activity. Chemoprevention offers a novel approach to control the incidence of colon cancer. Gallic acid (GA) is a polyphenol widely present in tea and other plants which is popularly used in the traditional medicine of China. The present study was to evaluate the efficacy of GA supplementation on tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in 1,2-dimethyhydrazine (DMH) induced colon carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats. The rats were assorted into six groups, viz., group1 control rats received modified pellet diet; group 2 rats received GA (50 mg/kg body weight) orally along with modified pellet diet; group 3 rats received DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) subcutaneously once a week for the first 15 weeks; groups 4, 5 and 6 rats received GA along with DMH during the initiation, post- initiation stages and the entire period of study respectively. All the rats were sacrificed at the end of 30 weeks and the tissues were evaluated biochemically. We observed decreased lipid peroxidation (LPO) products such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and conjugated dienes (CD) and diminished levels of antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the tissues of DMH treated rats, which were elevated significantly on GA supplementation. Moreover, enhanced activity of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol levels were also observed in DMH alone treated rats which were significantly reduced on GA supplementation. Our results suggest that GA could exert a significant chemopreventive effect on DMH induced colon carcinogenesis.