A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of silybin-phytosome in prostate cancer patients
- 900 Downloads
Silibinin is a polyphenolic flavonoid isolated from milk thistle with anti-neoplastic activity in several in vitro and in vivo models of cancer, including prostate cancer. Silybin-phytosome is a commercially available formulation containing silibinin. This trial was designed to assess the toxicity of high-dose silybin-phytosome and recommend a phase II dose. Silybin-phytosome was administered orally to prostate cancer patients, giving 2.5–20 g daily, in three divided doses. Each course was 4 weeks in duration. Thirteen patients received a total of 91 courses of silybin-phytosome. Baseline patient characteristics included: median age of 70 years, median baseline prostate specific antigen (PSA) of 4.3 ng/ml, and a median ECOG performance status of 0. The most prominent adverse event was hyperbilirubinemia, with grade 1–2 bilirubin elevations in 9 of the 13 patients. The only grade 3 toxicity observed was elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in one patient; no grade 4 toxicity was noted. No objective PSA responses were observed. We conclude that 13 g of oral silybin-phytosome daily, in 3 divided doses, appears to be well tolerated in patients with advanced prostate cancer and is the recommended phase II dose. Asymptomatic liver toxicity is the most commonly seen adverse event.
KeywordsSilibinin Phase I Prostate cancer
The authors wish to acknowledge the invaluable research support of Spencer Green and Cynthia Snedden. This work was supported in part by a grant from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), P30 CA046934 supplement.
- 8.Singh RP, Mallikarjuna GU, Sharma G, Dhanalakshmi S, Tyagi AK, Chan DC, Agarwal C, Agarwal R (2004) Oral silibinin inhibits lung tumor growth in athymic nude mice and forms a novel chemocombination with doxorubicin targeting nuclear factor kappaB-mediated inducible chemoresistance. Clin Cancer Res 10:8641–8647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Singh RP, Sharma G, Dhanalakshmi S, Agarwal C, Agarwal R (2003) Suppression of advanced human prostate tumor growth in athymic mice by silibinin feeding is associated with reduced cell proliferation, increased apoptosis, and inhibition of angiogenesis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12:933–939PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 16.Hoh C, Boocock D, Marczylo T, Singh R, Berry DP, Dennison AR, Hemingway D, Miller A, West K, Euden S, Garcea G, Farmer PB, Steward WP, Gescher AJ (2006) Pilot study of oral silibinin, a putative chemopreventive agent, in colorectal cancer patients: silibinin levels in plasma, colorectum, and liver and their pharmacodynamic consequences. Clin Cancer Res 12:2944–2950PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar