Documenta Ophthalmologica

, Volume 136, Issue 2, pp 113–123 | Cite as

Comparison between albino and pigmented rabbit ERGs

  • Gabriela Lourençon IoshimotoEmail author
  • Amanda Alves Camargo
  • André Maurício Passos Liber
  • Balázs Vince Nagy
  • Francisco Max Damico
  • Dora Fix Ventura
Original Research Article



Pigmented and albino rabbits are commonly used in visual research; however, the lack of pigment in the eyes may affect retinal responses. Here, we compare and describe the differences of retinal function between pigmented (English Butterfly) and albino (New Zealand) rabbits.


Electroretinograms were recorded in pigmented and albino rabbits in the dark-adapted eye, in the light-adapted eye and for four temporal frequencies in the light-adapted eye. The implicit time and amplitude of the a- and b-waves were analyzed, as well as the amplitude and phase of the first harmonic component of the photopic flicker response.


Albino rabbits presented significantly larger amplitudes for both a- and b-waves at all intensities and frequencies. The intensity–response function of the scotopic b-wave also showed that the albino retina is more sensitive than the pigmented retina and the larger flicker amplitudes found in the albino group also revealed post-receptoral changes specifically related to cone pathways.


The larger amplitude of albino receptoral and post-receptoral activities might be attributed to greater availability of light due to scatter and reflection at the retinal layer, and as the differences in response amplitudes between the groups increase with flicker frequency, we suggest that ON bipolar cells recover faster in the albino group, suggesting that this might be a mechanism to explain the higher temporal resolution for albinos compared to the pigmented group.


Rabbit Albino Pigmented Retina Electroretinogram 



São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) provided financial support in the form of funding. The sponsor had no role in the design or conduct of this research.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors certify that they have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest (such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers’ bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; and expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements), or non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, knowledge or beliefs) in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. All experimental methods and animal care procedures adhered to the ARVO Statement for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research and were approved by the Committee for Ethics in Animal Research, Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade de São Paulo.

Informed consent

This article does not contain any studies with humans performed by any of the authors.

Statement of human rights

This article does not contain any studies with humans performed by any of the authors.

Statement on the welfare of animals

All procedures in this studies involving animals were performed in accordance with national and institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals. The procedures were approved in accordance with national law by the ethical standards of the institution (CEPA 001.2013).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Experimental Psychology, Institute of PsychologyUniversidade de São PauloCidade Universitária, São PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Ophthalmology, Medical SchoolUniversidade de São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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