Documenta Ophthalmologica

, Volume 133, Issue 1, pp 1–9 | Cite as

ISCEV standard for clinical visual evoked potentials: (2016 update)

  • J. Vernon OdomEmail author
  • Michael Bach
  • Mitchell Brigell
  • Graham E. Holder
  • Daphne L. McCulloch
  • Atsushi Mizota
  • Alma Patrizia Tormene
  • International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision
ISCEV Standards


Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) can provide important diagnostic information regarding the functional integrity of the visual system. This document updates the ISCEV standard for clinical VEP testing and supersedes the 2009 standard. The main changes in this revision are the acknowledgment that pattern stimuli can be produced using a variety of technologies with an emphasis on the need for manufacturers to ensure that there is no luminance change during pattern reversal or pattern onset/offset. The document is also edited to bring the VEP standard into closer harmony with other ISCEV standards. The ISCEV standard VEP is based on a subset of stimulus and recording conditions that provide core clinical information and can be performed by most clinical electrophysiology laboratories throughout the world. These are: (1) Pattern-reversal VEPs elicited by checkerboard stimuli with large 1 degree (°) and small 0.25° checks. (2) Pattern onset/offset VEPs elicited by checkerboard stimuli with large 1° and small 0.25° checks. (3) Flash VEPs elicited by a flash (brief luminance increment) which subtends a visual field of at least 20°. The ISCEV standard VEP protocols are defined for a single recording channel with a midline occipital active electrode. These protocols are intended for assessment of the eye and/or optic nerves anterior to the optic chiasm. Extended, multi-channel protocols are required to evaluate postchiasmal lesions.


Visual evoked potential Pattern-reversal visual evoked potential Pattern onset/offset Visual evoked potential Flash visual evoked potential Standard 



ISCEV’s standardization process requires the active participation of individual ISCEV members who act as consultants to the committee which writes the standard.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Vernon Odom
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michael Bach
    • 2
  • Mitchell Brigell
    • 3
  • Graham E. Holder
    • 4
  • Daphne L. McCulloch
    • 5
  • Atsushi Mizota
    • 6
  • Alma Patrizia Tormene
    • 7
  • International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision
  1. 1.West Virginia University Eye InstituteMorgantownUSA
  2. 2.Eye Center, Medical Center and Faculty of MedicineUniversity of FreiburgFreiburgGermany
  3. 3.Aerpio TherapeuticsCincinnatiUSA
  4. 4.Moorfields Eye Hospital and UCL Institute of OphthalmologyLondonUK
  5. 5.School of Optometry and Vision SciencesUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada
  6. 6.Department of OphthalmologyTeikyo University School of MedicineTokyoJapan
  7. 7.Department of Neurosciences, Ophthalmic ClinicPadova UniversityPaduaItaly

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