Two-color pupillometry in enhanced S-cone syndrome caused by NR2E3 mutations
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate pupillary light reflexes (PLRs) mediated by rod, cone, and intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell pathways as indices of outer- and inner-retinal function in patients who have enhanced S-cone syndrome (ESCS) due to NR2E3 mutations.
Four patients with ESCS (ages 16–23 years) participated in the study. Subjects were tested with long- and short-wavelength single-flash full-field ERG stimuli under light-adapted conditions. They were also tested with an established pupillometry protocol involving 1-s duration, long- and short-wavelength stimuli under dark- and light-adapted conditions. The PLR was measured as a function of stimulus luminance. Transient PLRs were measured under all conditions, and sustained PLRs were measured under the highest luminance dark-adapted condition.
Two-color light-adapted full-field ERGs demonstrated larger amplitude responses for short-wavelength stimuli relative to long-wavelength stimuli of the same photopic luminance, with three of four ESCS patients having super-normal a-wave amplitudes to the short-wavelength stimulus. b/a wave ratios were reduced in all four cases. Transient PLRs elicited by low-luminance stimuli under dark-adapted conditions (rod-mediated) were unrecordable, whereas the sustained PLRs elicited by high-luminance stimuli (melanopsin-mediated) were normal. Cone-mediated PLRs were recordable for all four patients, but generally lower than normal in amplitude. However, the cone-mediated PLR was larger for the short-wavelength stimulus compared to the photopically matched long-wavelength stimulus at high luminances, a pattern that was not observed for control subjects. None of the PLR conditions demonstrated “super-normal” responses.
ESCS patients appear to have generally well-preserved cone- and melanopsin-mediated PLRs, indicating intact inner-retinal function. Two-color pupillometry demonstrates greater sensitivity to short-wavelength light under higher-luminance conditions and could complement the ERG as a tool for evaluating retinal function in ESCS.
KeywordsEnhanced S-cone syndrome Pupillary light reflex Pupillometry Full-field electroretinogram NR2E3
The Pangere Family Foundation, Gary, Indiana (GAF), National Institutes of Health Research Grants EY019510 (JM) and EY001792 (UIC core grant) and an unrestricted departmental grant from Research to Prevent Blindness provided financial support in the form of monetary funding. The sponsors had no role in the design or conduct of this research.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors certify that they have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest (such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers’ bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; and expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements), or non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, knowledge or beliefs) in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Statement of human rights
The study was performed in accordance with Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Statement on the welfare of animals
This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
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