Documenta Ophthalmologica

, Volume 125, Issue 2, pp 149–159

Biomedical signal acquisition with streaming wireless communication for recording evoked potentials

  • Johnson Thie
  • Alexander Klistorner
  • Stuart L. Graham
Original Research Article



Commercial electrophysiology systems for recording evoked potentials always connect patients to the acquisition unit via long wires. Wires guarantee timely transfer of signals for synchronization with the stimuli, but they are susceptible to electromagnetic and electrostatic interferences. Though wireless solutions are readily available (e.g. Bluetooth), they introduce high delay variability that will distort the evoked potential traces. We developed a complete wireless acquisition system with a fixed delay.


The system supports up to 4 bipolar channels; each is amplified by 20,000× and digitized to 24 bits. The system incorporates the “driven-right-leg” circuit to lower the common noise. Data are continuously streamed using radio-frequency transmission operating at 915 MHz and then tagged with the stimulus SYNC signal at the receiver. The delay, noise level and transmission error rate were measured. Flash visual evoked potentials were recorded monocularly from both eyes of six adults with normal vision. The signals were acquired via wireless and wired transmissions simultaneously. The recording was repeated on some participants within 2 weeks.


The delay was constant at 20 ms. The system noise was white and Gaussian (2 microvolts RMS). The transmission error rate was about one per million packets. The VEPs recorded with wireless transmission were consistent with those with wired transmission. The VEP amplitudes and shapes showed good intra-session and inter-session reproducibility and were consistent across eyes.


The wireless acquisition system can reliably record visual evoked potentials. It has a constant delay of 20 ms and very low error rate.


VEP Wireless EEG ERG ECG Multifocal 


  1. 1.
    Filshie JH, Duncan IJH, Clark JSB (1980) Radiotelemetry of avian electrocardiogram. Med Biol Eng Comput 18:633–637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Létourneau P, Dumont S, Kianicka I, Diaz V, Dorion D, Drolet R, Praud J-P (1999) Radiotelemetry system for apnea study in lambs. Respir Physiol 116:85–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rollins DL, Killingsworth CR, Walcott GP, Kyle R (2000) A telemetry system for the study of spontaneous cardiac arrhythmias. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 47:887–892PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lapray D, Bergeler J, Dupont E, Thews O, Luhmann HJ (2008) A novel miniature telemetric system for recording EEG activity in freely moving rats. J Neurosci Methods 168:119–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Modarreszadeh M, Schmidt RN (1997) Wireless, 32-channel, EEG and epilepsy monitoring system. Proc Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol 3:1157–1160Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Irazoqui-Pastor P, Mody I, Judy JW (2003) In vivo EEG recording using a wireless implantable neural transceiver. In: Proceedings of 1st international conference on IEEE-EMBS conference of neural engineering, pp 622–625Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Marques M, Dutorne B (1977) Implantable telemetry system for long-term EMG. Biotelemetry 4:28–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Steyaert M, Gogaert S, Van Nuland T, Sansen W (1991) A low-power portable telemetry system for eight-channel EMG measurements. Proc Annu Int IEEE-EMBS Conf 13:1711–1712Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vehkaoja AT, Verho JA, Puurtinen MM, Nöjd NM, Lekkala JO, Hyttinen JA (2005) Wireless head cap for EOG and facial EMG measurements. Proc Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol 7:5865–5868Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fryer TB, Sandler H, Freund W (1975) A multichannel implantable telemetry system for flow, pressure, and ECG measurements. J Appl Physiol 39:318–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nieder A (2000) Miniature stereo radio transmitter for simultaneous recording of multiple single-neuron signals from behaving owls. J Neurosci Methods 101:157–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Obeid I, Nicolelis MAL, Wolf PD (2004) A multichannel telemetry system for single unit neural recordings. J Neurosci Methods 133:33–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pinkwart C, Borchers H-W (1987) Miniature three-function transmitting system for single neuron recording, wireless brain stimulation and marking. J Neurosci Methods 20:341–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Farajidavar A, Seifert JL, Bell JES, Seo Y-S, Delgado MR, Sparagana S, Romero MI, Chiao J-C (2011) A wireless system for monitoring transcranial motor evoked potentials. Ann Biomed Eng 39:517–523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ellingson RM, Oken B (2010) Feasibility and performance evaluation of generating and recording visual evoked potentials using ambulatory Bluetooth based system. 2010 Annual international conference of the IEEE engineering in medicine and biology society, EMBC’10, pp 6829–6832Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Webster JG (2009) Medical instrumentation application and design. Wiley, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Winter BB, Webster JG (1983) Driven-right-leg circuit design. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 30:62–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Heckenlively JR, Arden GB (2006) Principles and practice of clinical electrophysiology of vision. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johnson Thie
    • 1
  • Alexander Klistorner
    • 1
    • 2
  • Stuart L. Graham
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Australian School of Advanced MedicineMacquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Save Sight InstituteThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations