Documenta Ophthalmologica

, Volume 114, Issue 1, pp 9–19 | Cite as

The ‘two global flash’ mfERG in high and normal tension primary open-angle glaucoma

  • Anja M. Palmowski-WolfeEmail author
  • Margarita G. Todorova
  • Selim Orguel
  • Josef Flammer
  • Mitchell Brigell
Original Paper



To analyse the sensitivity of the ‘2 global flash’ multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) to detect glaucomatous dysfunction in normal tension (NTG) and high tension primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients.


MfERGs were recorded from 20 NTG and 20 POAG patients and compared to those of 20 controls. The mfERG array consisted of 103 hexagons. Each m-sequence step started with a focal flash that could be either dark or light (m-sequence: 2^13, L max: 200 cd/m2, L min: 1 cd/m2), followed by two global flashes (L max: 200 cd/m2) at an interval of ∼26 ms. Focal scalar products (SP) were calculated using focal templates derived from the control recordings (VERIS 4.8). We analyzed 5 response averages (central 7.5 degrees and 4 adjoining quadrants) of the response to the focal flash, the direct component at 10–40 ms (DC) and the following two components induced by the effects of the preceding focal flash on the response to the global flashes at 40–70 ms (IC-1) and at 70–100 ms (IC-2).


Both NTG and POAG patients differed from controls in the IC-1 response to the superior quadrants, and POAG patients also differed from controls in the centre. The most sensitive parameter was the IC-1 of the superior temporal quadrant with an area under the ROC curve of 0.82 for POAG and 0.79 for NTG. The DC and the IC-2 did not differ significantly between the groups. When all five response averages of the IC-1 were taken into consideration 90% of the NTG patients and 85% of the POAG patients were correctly classified as abnormal while 80% of the control subjects were correctly classified as normal.


This stimulus sequence holds promise for the diagnosis of early functional changes in POAG. A new finding is that both NTG, as well as POAG can be differentiated from control subjects.


mfERG Global flash Glaucoma POAG Normal tension glaucoma 



We thank Andy Schötzau for statistical advice and Pfizer for grant support (APW,MT).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anja M. Palmowski-Wolfe
    • 1
    Email author
  • Margarita G. Todorova
    • 1
  • Selim Orguel
    • 1
  • Josef Flammer
    • 1
  • Mitchell Brigell
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity Eye HospitalBaselSwitzerland
  2. 2.Pfizer Global Research & DevelopmentAnn ArborUSA

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