Discrete Event Dynamic Systems

, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 407–441 | Cite as

Controller synthesis for dynamic hierarchical real-time plants using timed automata

  • Md Tawhid Bin WaezEmail author
  • Andrzej Wąsowski
  • Juergen Dingel
  • Karen Rudie


We use timed I/O automata based timed games to synthesize task-level reconfiguration services for cost-effective fault tolerance in a case study. The case study shows that state-space explosion is a severe problem for timed games. By applying suitable abstractions, we dramatically improve the scalability. However, timed I/O automata do not facilitate algorithmic abstraction generation techniques. The case study motivates the development of timed process automata to improve modeling and analysis for controller synthesis of time-critical plants which can be hierarchical and dynamic. The model offers two essential features for industrial systems: (i) compositional modeling with reusable designs for different contexts, and (ii) state-space reduction technique. Timed process automata model dynamic networks of continuous-time communicating plant processes which can activate other plant processes. We show how to establish safety and reachability properties of timed process automata by reduction to solving timed games. To mitigate the state-space explosion problem, an algorithmic state-space reduction technique using compositional reasoning and aggressive abstractions is also proposed. In this article, we demonstrate the theoretical framework of timed process automata and the effectiveness of the proposed state-space reduction technique by extending the case study.


Timed automata Controller synthesis Timed I/O automata Dynamic Timed process automata Hierarchical Compositional Reusable designs State-space reduction technique 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Md Tawhid Bin Waez
    • 1
    Email author
  • Andrzej Wąsowski
    • 2
  • Juergen Dingel
    • 3
  • Karen Rudie
    • 4
  1. 1.Research & Advanced EngineeringFord Motor CompanyDearbornUSA
  2. 2.Computer Science DepartmentIT University of CopenhagenKøbenhavnDenmark
  3. 3.School of ComputingQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  4. 4.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada

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