Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Among Individuals with HIV Mono-infection: A Growing Concern?
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Purpose of Review
Liver disease is a leading cause of non-AIDS-related death in the HIV population since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Recent studies suggest that patients with HIV are at high risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and progressive liver fibrosis. Evidence for the prevalence, risk factors, and diagnostic methodologies of NAFLD in patients with HIV mono-infection is summarized here.
Although limited, published studies suggest that the prevalence of NAFLD is higher (30–50%) and progresses at an increased rate in patients with HIV compared to the general population. Identifying those at risk for significant liver fibrosis is critical, preferably with non-invasive screening tests. While there is a paucity of evidence in this population, transient elastography (TE) appears to provide a sensitive, non-invasive screening modality.
Identifying NAFLD early will allow for dietary and lifestyle interventions, as well as future drug therapies to decrease the risk of progressive liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in the high-risk HIV population. Clinicians should be aware of this risk and consider using TE for NAFLD diagnosis and surveillance.
KeywordsNAFLD NASH HIV Transient elastography
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
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