Cholecystectomy and Biliary Sphincterotomy Increase Fecal Bile Loss and Improve Lipid Profile in Dyslipidemia
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Background and Aims
Bile is the only significant pathway for cholesterol elimination. Cholecystectomy (CS) increases fecal bile acid loss, and endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy (ES) is thought to have a similar effect. We speculated that a combined effect of ES + CS would further enhance fecal bile acid loss, potentially causing lipid profile changes in these patients.
Fecal bile acids and sterols were determined using gas chromatography in cohorts of post-CS + ES, post-CS and in healthy controls. The effect of ES + CS on blood lipid profile was assessed retrospectively in a single-center cohort of post-CS + ES patients, using a computerized database. Parameters of interest included demographics, medical history, and lipid profiles.
Fecal primary bile acid concentrations were increased after CS + ES compared to CS and controls (cholic acid [CA] 1.4 ng/mg vs. 0.26 ng/mg, p = 0.02 vs. 0.23 ng/mg, p = 0.004, chenodeoxycholic acid [CDCA] 1.92 ng/mg vs. 0.39 ng/mg, p = 0.02 vs. 0.23 ng/mg, p = 0.01, respectively). Fecal cholesterol excretion was similar in all three groups. Baseline serum lipid profile and subsequent changes following CS + ES were correlated. In patients with baseline hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol (TC) > 200 mg/dl), TC levels decreased by 28.5 mg/dl, and LDL levels decreased by 21.5 mg/dl. The effect was more pronounced in those with TC > 200 mg/dl, despite of statin intake. In patients with hypertriglyceridemia [triglycerides (TG) > 200 mg/dl], TG decreased by 67.8 mg/dl following ES + CS. Among patients without dyslipidemia or dyslipidemia with adequate response to statins, the effect of ES + CS on lipid profile was minor.
Fecal bile acid loss increases following CS + ES. The effect on blood lipid profile depends on baseline TC and TG levels. Lipid profile is improved in dyslipidemic patients, while the impact of CS + ES is minimal on the normolipemic population.
KeywordsBile acids Blood lipid profile Cholecystectomy Biliary sphincterotomy
Endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy
Total bile acids
Total blood cholesterol
We thank Professor Uri Gophna for his help with study concept and preparation.
This study was supported in part by the Josefina Maus and Gabriela Cesarman Chair for Research in Liver Diseases, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflict of interest to report.
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