Digestive Diseases and Sciences

, Volume 64, Issue 12, pp 3413–3430 | Cite as

Liver Transplantation for Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: Pathophysiology of Recurrence and Clinical Challenges

  • Naga Swetha Samji
  • Rajanshu Verma
  • Krishna Chaitanya Keri
  • Ashwani K. Singal
  • Aijaz Ahmed
  • Mary Rinella
  • David Bernstein
  • Manal F. Abdelmalek
  • Sanjaya K. SatapathyEmail author


Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is the fastest-growing indication for the liver transplant and a leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma among patients listed for liver transplantation in the USA. Post-transplant nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis are frequent complications of liver transplantation. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis poses a significant challenge in both pre- and post-transplant period due to its association with metabolic syndrome, coronary artery disease, chronic kidney disease, and obstructive sleep apnea. While optimal therapy is not yet available in the post-liver transplant setting, lifestyle interventions continue to remain as the mainstay of therapy for post-transplant nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Early recognition with protocol biopsies and noninvasive modalities, along with modification of known risk factors, are the most effective methods to curtail the progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in the absence of FDA-approved pharmacologic therapy.


Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis Liver transplantation Cryptogenic cirrhosis Immunosuppression Obesity-related liver disease Metabolic syndrome 


Author’s Contribution

SKS conceptualized the manuscript. Initial draft was prepared by NSS with help from RV who prepared the tables and figures. All other authors participated in the critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Dr. Abdelmalek reports no conflicts of interest related to the submitted work. Dr. Abdelmalek reports receiving grants awarded to her institution from NIH/NIDDK, Gilead, Conatus, Intercept, NGM, BMS, Boeringher-Ingelheim, Madrigal, Inventiva, Enanta, Novartis, Allergan, Target-NASH, Progenity, TaiwanJ, Poxel, Novo Nordisk, and Celgene. She participated in Speakers Bureau for Alexion, Simply Speaking NASH, MedScape, iHep NASH, and Clinical Care Options and is on the Scientific Advisory Board for NGM, BMS, TaiwanJ, Pfizer, Madrigal, Prometic, and SanoNASH. Dr. Sanjaya Satapathy reports no conflicts of interest related to the submitted work. Dr. Satapathy reports receiving grants from Gilead Sciences and participated in Speakers Bureau, Advisory Board of Gilead Sciences, received grants from Intercept Pharmaceuticals and participated in the Speakers Bureau, Advisory Board of Intercept Pharmaceuticals, received grants from Shire, grants from Conatus, grants from Bayer, and participated in the Speakers Bureau of Alexion, received grants from Dova and participated in the Speakers Bureau, and Advisory Board of Dova, received grants from Genfit, grants from Exact Sciences, and participated in the Advisory Board of Abbvie, outside the submitted work. Dr. Aijaz Ahmed, Dr. Samji Swetha, Dr. Ashwani Singal, Dr. Krishna Chaitanya Keri, Dr. Rajanshu Verma, and Dr. Manal Abdelmalek report no conflicts of interest related to the submitted work. Dr. David Bernstein reports no conflicts of interest related to the submitted work. He reports consulting/Ad Boards for Abbvie, Gilead, Dova, Shinoigi, Mallinkropt, Intercept, and reports having received research support from Abbvie, Gilead, Dova, Conatus, CymBay, Merck, BI, NovoNordisk, Novartis. Dr. Rinella reports no conflicts of interested related to this manuscript. She does consulting for the following pharmaceutical companies: Intercept, Gilead, NGM, BMS, Enanta, Novartis, Genfit, Immuron, Cymabay, Merck, Gelesis, Metacrine, Viking, Madrigal, Allergan, Thetis, Fractyl, 3vBio. She has received independent research funding from Novartis. She has no stock ownership in any company for whom she consults and is on no speakers bureaus.


  1. 1.
    Loomba R, Sanyal AJ. The global NAFLD epidemic. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;10:686–690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ray K. NAFLD-the next global epidemic. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;10:621.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Satapathy SK, Sanyal AJ. Epidemiology and natural history of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Semin Liver Dis. 2015;35:221–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sheth SG, Gordon FD, Chopra S. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Ann Intern Med. 1997;126:137–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kleiner DE, Brunt EM, Van Natta M, et al. Design and validation of a histological scoring system for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology. 2005;41:1313–1321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Younossi ZM, Loomba R, Anstee QM, et al. Diagnostic modalities for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and associated fibrosis. Hepatology. 2017;68:349–360.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tannapfel A, Denk H, Dienes HP, et al. Histopathological diagnosis of nonalcoholic and alcoholic fatty liver disease. Virchows Arch. 2011;458:511–523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kovalic AJ, Satapathy SK, Chalasani N. Targeting incretin hormones and the ASK-1 pathway as therapeutic options in the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatol Int. 2018;12:97–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Charlton MR, Burns JM, Pedersen RA, Watt KD, Heimbach JK, Dierkhising RA. Frequency and outcomes of liver transplantation for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in the United States. Gastroenterology. 2011;141:1249–1253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Agopian VG, Kaldas FM, Hong JC, et al. Liver transplantation for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: the new epidemic. Ann Surg. 2012;256:624–633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Siddique O, Joseph-Talreja M, Yoo ER, et al. Rising rate of liver transplantation in the baby boomer generation with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in the United States. J Clin Transl Hepatol. 2017;5:193–196.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Younossi Z, Stepanova M, Ong JP, et al. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is the fastest growing cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in liver transplant candidates. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018;17:748–755.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hagstrom H, Nasr P, Ekstedt M, et al. Fibrosis stage but not NASH predicts mortality and time to development of severe liver disease in biopsy-proven NAFLD. J Hepatol. 2017;67:1265–1273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ahmed O, Liu L, Gayed A, et al. The changing face of hepatocellular carcinoma: forecasting prevalence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatitis C cirrhosis. J Clin Exp Hepatol. 2019;9:50–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wong RJ, Aguilar M, Cheung R, et al. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is the second leading etiology of liver disease among adults awaiting liver transplantation in the United States. Gastroenterology. 2015;148:547–555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Noureddin M, Vipani A, Bresee C, et al. NASH leading cause of liver transplant in women: updated analysis of indications for liver transplant and ethnic and gender variances. Am J Gastroenterol. 2018;113:1649–1659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cananzi M, Vajro P, Rela M, Dhawan A. NAFLD and liver transplantation in children-working group report from the ILTS single topic conference on NAFLD. Transplantation. 2019;103:68–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
  19. 19.
    Baffy G, Brunt EM, Caldwell SH. Hepatocellular carcinoma in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: an emerging menace. J Hepatol. 2012;56:1384–1391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shingina A, DeWitt PE, Dodge JL, et al. Future trends in demand for liver transplant: birth cohort effects among patients with NASH and HCC. Transplantation. 2019;103:140–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Petta S, Gastaldelli A, Rebelos E, et al. Pathophysiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17:2082.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Laish I, Braun M, Mor E, Sulkes J, Harif Y, Ben Ari Z. Metabolic syndrome in liver transplant recipients: prevalence, risk factors, and association with cardiovascular events. Liver Transplant. 2011;17:15–22.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Satapathy SK, Charlton MR. Posttransplant metabolic syndrome: new evidence of an epidemic and recommendations for management. Liver Transplant. 2011;17:1–6.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dumortier J, Giostra E, Belbouab S, et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in liver transplant recipients: another story of “seed and soil”. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105:613–620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yang G, Badeanlou L, Bielawski J, Roberts AJ, Hannun YA, Samad F. Central role of ceramide biosynthesis in body weight regulation, energy metabolism, and the metabolic syndrome. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;297:E211–E224.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Satapathy SK, Nair S, Vanatta JM. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease following liver transplantation. Hepatol Int. 2013;7:400–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Samuel VT, Shulman GI. The pathogenesis of insulin resistance: integrating signaling pathways and substrate flux. J Clin Invest. 2016;126:12–22.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bugianesi E, Pagotto U, Manini R, et al. Plasma adiponectin in nonalcoholic fatty liver is related to hepatic insulin resistance and hepatic fat content, not to liver disease severity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:3498–3504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Li W, Yang X, Zheng T, et al. TNF-alpha stimulates endothelial palmitic acid transcytosis and promotes insulin resistance. Sci Rep. 2017;7:44659.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Polyzos SA, Aronis KN, Kountouras J, Raptis DD, Vasiloglou MF, Mantzoros CS. Circulating leptin in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetologia. 2016;59:30–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Paradis V, Perlemuter G, Bonvoust F, et al. High glucose and hyperinsulinemia stimulate connective tissue growth factor expression: a potential mechanism involved in progression to fibrosis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatology. 2001;34:738–744.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Arrese M, Cabrera D, Kalergis AM, Feldstein AE. Innate Immunity and Inflammation in NAFLD/NASH. Dig Dis Sci. 2016;61:1294–1303. Scholar
  33. 33.
    Moreno-Indias I, Sanchez-Alcoholado L, Garcia-Fuentes E, Cardona F, Queipo-Ortuno MI, Tinahones FJ. Insulin resistance is associated with specific gut microbiota in appendix samples from morbidly obese patients. Am J Transl Res. 2016;8:5672–5684.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Liu ZT, Chen TC, Lu XX, et al. PNPLA3 I148 M variant affects nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in liver transplant recipients. World J Gastroenterol. 2015;21:10054–10056.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Trunecka P, Mikova I, Dlouha D, et al. Donor PNPLA3 rs738409 genotype is a risk factor for graft steatosis. A post-transplant biopsy-based study. Dig Liver Dis. 2018;50:490–495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sookoian S, Pirola CJ. Meta-analysis of the influence of I148M variant of patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 gene (PNPLA3) on the susceptibility and histological severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology. 2011;53:1883–1894.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mahdessian H, Taxiarchis A, Popov S, et al. TM6SF2 is a regulator of liver fat metabolism influencing triglyceride secretion and hepatic lipid droplet content. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2014;111:8913–8918.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Liu YL, Reeves HL, Burt AD, et al. TM6SF2 rs58542926 influences hepatic fibrosis progression in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Nat Commun. 2014;5:4309.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Koo BK, Joo SK, Kim D, et al. Additive effects of PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 on the histological severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;6:1277–1285.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mancina RM, Dongiovanni P, Petta S, et al. The MBOAT7-TMC4 Variant rs641738 increases risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in individuals of european descent. Gastroenterology. 2016;150:1219.e1216–1230.e1216.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Miele L, Beale G, Patman G, et al. The Kruppel-like factor 6 genotype is associated with fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology. 2008;135:282.e281–291.e281.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Beer NL, Tribble ND, McCulloch LJ, et al. The P446L variant in GCKR associated with fasting plasma glucose and triglyceride levels exerts its effect through increased glucokinase activity in liver. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:4081–4088.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fares R, Petta S, Lombardi R, et al. The UCP2-866 G > A promoter region polymorphism is associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Liver Int. 2015;35:1574–1580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dongiovanni P, Valenti L, Rametta R, et al. Genetic variants regulating insulin receptor signalling are associated with the severity of liver damage in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gut. 2010;59:267–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Petta S, Valenti L, Tuttolomondo A, et al. Interferon lambda 4 rs368234815 TT > deltaG variant is associated with liver damage in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology. 2017;66:1885–1893.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Eslam M, Hashem AM, Leung R, et al. Interferon-lambda rs12979860 genotype and liver fibrosis in viral and non-viral chronic liver disease. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6422.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Musso G, Cassader M, De Michieli F, et al. MERTK rs4374383 variant predicts incident nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and diabetes: role of mononuclear cell activation and adipokine response to dietary fat. Hum Mol Genet. 2017;26:1747–1758.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jablonka E, Lamb MJ. The changing concept of epigenetics. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;981:82–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Choi SW, Friso S. Epigenetics: a new bridge between nutrition and health. Adv Nutr. 2010;1:8–16.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sookoian S, Rosselli MS, Gemma C, et al. Epigenetic regulation of insulin resistance in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: impact of liver methylation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha promoter. Hepatology. 2010;52:1992–2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Pirola CJ, Gianotti TF, Burgueno AL, et al. Epigenetic modification of liver mitochondrial DNA is associated with histological severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gut. 2013;62:1356–1363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Podrini C, Borghesan M, Greco A, Pazienza V, Mazzoccoli G, Vinciguerra M. Redox homeostasis and epigenetics in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Curr Pharm Des. 2013;19:2737–2746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lee J, Kim Y, Friso S, Choi SW. Epigenetics in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Mol Aspects Med. 2017;54:78–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Nassir F, Ibdah JA. Sirtuins and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2016;22:10084–10092.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Poy MN, Spranger M, Stoffel M. microRNAs and the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2007;9:67–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kong L, Zhu J, Han W, et al. Significance of serum microRNAs in pre-diabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a clinical study. Acta Diabetol. 2011;48:61–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Zarfeshani A, Ngo S, Sheppard AM. MicroRNA expression relating to dietary-induced liver steatosis and NASH. J Clin Med. 2015;4:1938–1950.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gallego-Duran R, Romero-Gomez M. Epigenetic mechanisms in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: an emerging field. World J Hepatol. 2015;7:2497–2502.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Goldberg D, Ditah IC, Saeian K, et al. Changes in the prevalence of hepatitis c virus infection, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and alcoholic liver disease among patients with cirrhosis or liver failure on the waitlist for liver transplantation. Gastroenterology. 2017;152:1090.e1091–1099.e1091.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Young K, Aguilar M, Gish R, et al. Lower rates of receiving model for end-stage liver disease exception and longer time to transplant among nonalcoholic steatohepatitis hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver Transplant. 2016;22:1356–1366.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Yi Z, Mayorga ME, Orman ES, Wheeler SB, Hayashi PH, Barritt AST. Trends in characteristics of patients listed for liver transplantation will lead to higher rates of waitlist removal due to clinical deterioration. Transplantation. 2017;101:2368–2374.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    McCormack L, Dutkowski P, El-Badry AM, Clavien PA. Liver transplantation using fatty livers: always feasible? J Hepatol. 2011;54:1055–1062.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Montano-Loza AJ, Angulo P, Meza-Junco J, et al. Sarcopenic obesity and myosteatosis are associated with higher mortality in patients with cirrhosis. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2016;7:126–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Perito ER, Rhee S, Glidden D, Roberts JP, Rosenthal P. Impact of the donor body mass index on the survival of pediatric liver transplant recipients and post-transplant obesity. Liver Transplant. 2012;18:930–939.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Nair S, Verma S, Thuluvath PJ. Obesity and its effect on survival in patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation in the United States. Hepatology. 2002;35:105–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Giorgakis E, Tedeschi M, Bonaccorsi-Riani E, et al. The effect of recipient body mass index and its extremes on survival and graft vascular and biliary complications after liver transplantation: a single center retrospective study. Ann Transplant. 2017;22:611–621.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bambha KM, Dodge JL, Gralla J, Sprague D, Biggins SW. Low, rather than high, body mass index confers increased risk for post-liver transplant death and graft loss: risk modulated by model for the end-stage liver disease. Liver Transplant. 2015;21:1286–1294.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Carias S, Castellanos AL, Vilchez V, et al. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is strongly associated with sarcopenic obesity in patients with cirrhosis undergoing liver transplant evaluation. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;31:628–633.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hammad A, Kaido T, Hamaguchi Y, et al. Impact of sarcopenic overweight on the outcomes after living donor liver transplantation. Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr. 2017;6:367–378.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kim G, Kang SH, Kim MY, Baik SK. Prognostic value of sarcopenia in patients with liver cirrhosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2017;12:e0186990.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kahn J, Wagner D, Homfeld N, Muller H, Kniepeiss D, Schemmer P. Both sarcopenia and frailty determine suitability of patients for liver transplantation—a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. Clin Transplant. 2018;32:e13226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Meeks AC, Madill J. Sarcopenia in liver transplantation: a review. Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2017;22:76–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Perumpail BJ, Khan MA, Yoo ER, Cholankeril G, Kim D, Ahmed A. Clinical epidemiology and disease burden of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2017;23:8263–8276.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Portillo Sanchez P, Bril F, Maximos M, et al. High prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and normal plasma aminotransferase levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;100:2231–2238.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Huesing-Kabar A, Dohna CZ, Heinzow H, et al. Risk factors for allograft failure in liver transplant recipients. Z Gastroenterol. 2018;56:745–751.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Falck-Ytter Y, Younossi ZM, Marchesini G, McCullough AJ. Clinical features and natural history of nonalcoholic steatosis syndromes. Semin Liver Dis. 2001;21:17–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ludwig J, Viggiano TR, McGill DB, Oh BJ. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: Mayo Clinic experiences with a hitherto unnamed disease. Mayo Clin Proc. 1980;55:434–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lee RG. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a study of 49 patients. Hum Pathol. 1989;20:594–598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Powell EE, Cooksley WG, Hanson R, Searle J, Halliday JW, Powell LW. The natural history of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a follow-up study of forty-two patients for up to 21 years. Hepatology. 1990;11:74–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Williams CD, Stengel J, Asike MI, et al. Prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis among a largely middle-aged population utilizing ultrasound and liver biopsy: a prospective study. Gastroenterology. 2011;140:124–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Browning JD, Szczepaniak LS, Dobbins R, et al. Prevalence of hepatic steatosis in an urban population in the United States: impact of ethnicity. Hepatology. 2004;40:1387–1395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bacon BR, Farahvash MJ, Janney CG, Neuschwander-Tetri BA. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: an expanded clinical entity. Gastroenterology. 1994;107:1103–1109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kalia HS, Gaglio PJ. The prevalence and pathobiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in patients of different races or ethnicities. Clin Liver Dis. 2016;20:215–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kovalic AJ, Satapathy SK. The role of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease on cardiovascular manifestations and outcomes. Clin Liver Dis. 2018;22:141–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Luo J, Xu L, Li J, Zhao S. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as a potential risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;27:193–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Gaudio E, Nobili V, Franchitto A, Onori P, Carpino G. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis. Intern Emerg Med. 2012;7:S297–S305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Oni ET, Agatston AS, Blaha MJ, et al. A systematic review: burden and severity of subclinical cardiovascular disease among those with nonalcoholic fatty liver; should we care? Atherosclerosis. 2013;230:258–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Vanwagner LB, Bhave M, Te HS, Feinglass J, Alvarez L, Rinella ME. Patients transplanted for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis are at increased risk for postoperative cardiovascular events. Hepatology. 2012;56:1741–1750.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Watt KD, Pedersen RA, Kremers WK, Heimbach JK, Charlton MR. Evolution of causes and risk factors for mortality post-liver transplant: results of the NIDDK long-term follow-up study. Am J Transplant. 2010;10:1420–1427.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    VanWagner LB, Serper M, Kang R, et al. Factors associated with major adverse cardiovascular events after liver transplantation among a national sample. Am J Transplant. 2016;16:2684–2694.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    VanWagner LB, Lapin B, Skaro AI, Lloyd-Jones DM, Rinella ME. Impact of renal impairment on cardiovascular disease mortality after liver transplantation for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis cirrhosis. Liver Int. 2015;35:2575–2583.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bushyhead D, Kirkpatrick JN, Goldberg D. Pretransplant echocardiographic parameters as markers of posttransplant outcomes in liver transplant recipients. Liver Transplant. 2016;22:316–323.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sanchez-Torrijos Y, Ampuero J, Romero-Gomez M. Cardiovascular assessment in liver transplant for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis patients: what we do, what we should do. World J Hepatol. 2017;9:697–703.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Patel SS, Nabi E, Guzman L, et al. Coronary artery disease in decompensated patients undergoing liver transplantation evaluation. Liver Transplant. 2018;24:333–342.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Cassagneau P, Jacquier A, Giorgi R, et al. Prognostic value of preoperative coronary computed tomography angiography in patients treated by orthotopic liver transplantation. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;24:558–562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Bays H, Cohen DE, Chalasani N, Harrison SA. The national lipid association’s statin safety task F: an assessment by the statin liver safety task force: 2014 update. J Clin Lipidol. 2014;8:S47–S57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    VanWagner LB. Asprin and statin use for management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in liver transplant candidates: Are we missing the mark? Liver Transplant. 2018;24:865–867.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Jin S, Jiang S, Hu A. Association between obstructive sleep apnea and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Breath. 2018;22:841–851.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Destors M, Tamisier R, Galerneau LM, Levy P, Pepin JL. Pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and its cardiometabolic consequences. Presse Med. 2017;46:395–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Krowka MJ. Management of pulmonary complications in pretransplant patients. Clin Liver Dis. 2011;15:765–777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Musso G, Gambino R, Tabibian JH, et al. Association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med. 2014;11:e1001680.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Park CW, Tsai NT, Wong LL. Implications of worse renal dysfunction and medical comorbidities in patients with NASH undergoing liver transplant evaluation: impact on MELD and more. Clin Transplant. 2011;25:E606–E611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Cuervas-Mons V, Millan I, Gavaler JS, Starzl TE, Van Thiel DH. Prognostic value of preoperatively obtained clinical and laboratory data in predicting survival following orthotopic liver transplantation. Hepatology. 1986;6:922–927.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Brown RS Jr, Lake JR, Ascher NL, Emond JC, Roberts JP. Predictors of the cost of liver transplantation. Liver Transplant Surg. 1998;4:170–176.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Sharma P, Welch K, Eikstadt R, Marrero JA, Fontana RJ, Lok AS. Renal outcomes after liver transplantation in the model for end-stage liver disease era. Liver Transplant. 2009;15:1142–1148.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Afzali A, Berry K, Ioannou GN. Excellent posttransplant survival for patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in the United States. Liver Transplant. 2012;18:29–37.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Singal AK, Salameh H, Kuo YF, Wiesner RH. Evolving frequency and outcomes of simultaneous liver kidney transplants based on liver disease etiology. Transplantation. 2014;98:216–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Wong RJ, Chou C, Bonham CA, Concepcion W, Esquivel CO, Ahmed A. Improved survival outcomes in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and alcoholic liver disease following liver transplantation: an analysis of 2002–2012 United Network for Organ Sharing data. Clin Transplant. 2014;28:713–721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Cholankeril G, Wong RJ, Hu M, et al. Liver transplantation for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in the US: temporal trends and outcomes. Dig Dis Sci. 2017;62:2915–2922. Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wang X, Li J, Riaz DR, Shi G, Liu C, Dai Y. Outcomes of liver transplantation for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;12:394.e391–402.e391.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    van den Berg EH, Douwes RM, de Meijer VE, Schreuder T, Blokzijl H. Liver transplantation for NASH cirrhosis is not performed at the expense of major post-operative morbidity. Dig Liver Dis. 2018;50:68–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Hoehn RS, Singhal A, Wima K, et al. Effect of pretransplant diabetes on short-term outcomes after liver transplantation: a national cohort study. Liver Int. 2015;35:1902–1909.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Conzen KD, Vachharajani N, Collins KM, et al. Morbid obesity in liver transplant recipients adversely affects longterm graft and patient survival in a single-institution analysis. HPB. 2015;17:251–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Barbas AS, Goldaracena N, Dib MJ, et al. Early intervention with live donor liver transplantation reduces resource utilization in NASH: the toronto experience. Transplant Direct. 2017;3:e158.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Ghabril M, Agarwal S, Lacerda M, Chalasani N, Kwo P, Tector AJ. Portal vein thrombosis is a risk factor for poor early outcomes after liver transplantation: analysis of risk factors and outcomes for portal vein thrombosis in waitlisted patients. Transplantation. 2016;100:126–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Agbim U, Jiang Y, Kedia SK, et al. Impact of non-malignant portal vein thrombosis in transplant recipients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Liver Transplant. 2018;22:841–851.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Mehrotra S, Mehta N, Rao PS, Lalwani S, Mangla V, Nundy S. Live donor liver transplantation for acute liver failure: a single center experience. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2018;37:25–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Losurdo G, Castellaneta A, Rendina M, Carparelli S, Leandro G, Di Leo A. Systematic review with meta-analysis: de novo nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in liver-transplanted patients. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2018;47:704–714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Yalamanchili K, Saadeh S, Klintmalm GB, Jennings LW, Davis GL. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease after liver transplantation for cryptogenic cirrhosis or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver Transplant. 2010;16:431–439.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kim H, Lee K, Lee KW, et al. Histologically proven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and clinically related factors in recipients after liver transplantation. Clin Transplant. 2014;28:521–529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Idowu MO, Chhatrala R, Siddiqui MB, et al. De novo hepatic steatosis drives atherogenic risk in liver transplantation recipients. Liver Transplant. 2015;21:1395–1402.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Lim LG, Cheng CL, Wee A, et al. Prevalence and clinical associations of posttransplant fatty liver disease. Liver Int. 2007;27:76–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Seo S, Maganti K, Khehra M, et al. De novo nonalcoholic fatty liver disease after liver transplantation. Liver Transplant. 2007;13:844–847.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Vallin M, Guillaud O, Boillot O, Hervieu V, Scoazec JY, Dumortier J. Recurrent or de novo nonalcoholic fatty liver disease after liver transplantation: natural history based on liver biopsy analysis. Liver Transplant. 2014;20:1064–1071.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Contos MJ, Cales W, Sterling RK, et al. Development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease after orthotopic liver transplantation for cryptogenic cirrhosis. Liver Transplant. 2001;7:363–373.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Ong J, Younossi ZM, Reddy V, et al. Cryptogenic cirrhosis and posttransplantation nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver Transplant. 2001;7:797–801.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Charlton M, Kasparova P, Weston S, et al. Frequency of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis as a cause of advanced liver disease. Liver Transplant. 2001;7:608–614.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Kim WR, Poterucha JJ, Porayko MK, Dickson ER, Steers JL, Wiesner RH. Recurrence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis following liver transplantation. Transplantation. 1996;62:1802–1805.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Bhagat V, Mindikoglu AL, Nudo CG, Schiff ER, Tzakis A, Regev A. Outcomes of liver transplantation in patients with cirrhosis due to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis versus patients with cirrhosis due to alcoholic liver disease. Liver Transplant. 2009;15:1814–1820.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Hanouneh IA, Macaron C, Lopez R, et al. Recurrence of disease following liver transplantation: nonalcoholic steatohepatitis vs hepatitis C virus infection. Int J Organ Transplant Med. 2011;2:57–65.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Unger LW, Herac M, Staufer K, et al. The post-transplant course of patients undergoing liver transplantation for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis versus cryptogenic cirrhosis: a retrospective case-control study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;29:309–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Sourianarayanane A, Arikapudi S, McCullough AJ, Humar A. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis recurrence and rate of fibrosis progression following liver transplantation. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;29:481–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Bhati C, Idowu MO, Sanyal AJ, et al. Long-term outcomes in patients undergoing liver transplantation for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-related cirrhosis. Transplantation. 2017;101:1867–1874.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Karam V, Sebagh M, Rifai K, et al. Quality of life 10 years after liver transplantation: the impact of graft histology. World J Transplant. 2016;6:703–711.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Andrade AR, Bittencourt PL, Codes L, et al. New onset diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease after liver transplantation. Ann Hepatol. 2017;16:932–940.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Gitto S, de Maria N, di Benedetto F, et al. De novo nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is associated with long-term increased mortality in liver transplant recipients. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018;30:766–773.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Siriwardana RC, Niriella MA, Dassanayake AS, Liyanage CA, Gunetilleke B, de Silva HJ. Recurrence of graft steatosis after liver transplantation for cryptogenic cirrhosis in recently commenced liver transplant program. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2016;35:222–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Ayata G, Gordon FD, Lewis WD, et al. Cryptogenic cirrhosis: clinicopathologic findings at and after liver transplantation. Hum Pathol. 2002;33:1098–1104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Sprinzl MF, Weinmann A, Lohse N, et al. Metabolic syndrome and its association with fatty liver disease after orthotopic liver transplantation. Transpl Int. 2013;26:67–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    El Atrache MM, Abouljoud MS, Divine G, et al. Recurrence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cryptogenic cirrhosis following orthotopic liver transplantation in the context of the metabolic syndrome. Clin Transplant. 2012;26:E505–E512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Sanjeevi A, Lyden E, Sunderman B, Weseman R, Ashwathnarayan R, Mukherjee S. Outcomes of liver transplantation for cryptogenic cirrhosis: a single-center study of 71 patients. Transplant Proc. 2003;35:2977–2980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Tanaka T, Sugawara Y, Tamura S, et al. Living donor liver transplantation for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a single center experience. Hepatol Res. 2014;44:E3–E10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Abboudi H, Macphee IA. Individualized immunosuppression in transplant patients: potential role of pharmacogenetics. Pharmgenomics Personal Med. 2012;5:63–72.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Muduma G, Saunders R, Odeyemi I, Pollock RF. Systematic review and meta-analysis of tacrolimus versus ciclosporin as primary immunosuppression after liver transplant. PLoS One. 2016;11:e0160421.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    McAlister VC, Haddad E, Renouf E, Malthaner RA, Kjaer MS, Gluud LL. Cyclosporin versus tacrolimus as primary immunosuppressant after liver transplantation: a meta-analysis. Am J Transplant. 2006;6:1578–1585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Tueche SG. Diabetes mellitus after liver transplant new etiologic clues and cornerstones for understanding. Transplant Proc. 2003;35:1466–1468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Haddad EM, McAlister VC, Renouf E, Malthaner R, Kjaer MS, Gluud LL. Cyclosporin versus tacrolimus for liver transplanted patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;2006:CD005161.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Houlihan DD, Armstrong MJ, Davidov Y, et al. Renal function in patients undergoing transplantation for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis cirrhosis: time to reconsider immunosuppression regimens? Liver Transplant. 2011;17:1292–1298.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Molnar MZ, Joglekar K, Jiang Y, et al. Association of pretransplant renal function with liver graft and patient survival after liver transplantation in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Liver Transplant. 2019;25:399–410.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Segev DL, Sozio SM, Shin EJ, et al. Steroid avoidance in liver transplantation: meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized trials. Liver Transplant. 2008;14:512–525.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Satapathy SK, Jones OD, Vanatta JM, et al. Outcomes of liver transplant recipients with autoimmune liver disease using long-term dual immunosuppression regimen without corticosteroid. Transplant Direct. 2017;3:e178.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Fussner LA, Heimbach JK, Fan C, et al. Cardiovascular disease after liver transplantation: when, what, and who is at risk. Liver Transplant. 2015;21:889–896.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Charlton M, Levitsky J, Aqel B, et al. International liver transplantation society consensus statement on immunosuppression in liver transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2018;102:727–743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Germani G, Laryea M, Rubbia-Brandt L, et al. Management of recurrent and de novo NAFLD/NASH after liver transplantation. Transplantation. 2019;103:57–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Cholankeril G, Patel R, Khurana S, Satapathy SK. Hepatocellular carcinoma in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: current knowledge and implications for management. World J Hepatol. 2017;9:533–543.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Said A, Ghufran A. Epidemic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Clin Oncol. 2017;8:429–436.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Perumpail RB, Wong RJ, Ahmed A, Harrison SA. Hepatocellular carcinoma in the setting of non-cirrhotic nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the metabolic syndrome: US experience. Dig Dis Sci. 2015;60:3142–3148. Scholar
  158. 158.
    Sadler EM, Mehta N, Bhat M, et al. Liver transplantation for NASH-related hepatocellular carcinoma versus non-NASH etiologies of hepatocellular carcinoma. Transplantation. 2018;102:640–647.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Lewin SM, Mehta N, Kelley RK, Roberts JP, Yao FY, Brandman D. Liver transplantation recipients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis have lower risk hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver Transplant. 2017;23:1015–1022.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Dugum M, Hanouneh I, Lopez R, Aucejo F, Eghtesad B, Zein N. Hepatocellular carcinoma in the setting of chronic hepatitis B virus infection: tumor recurrence and survival rates after liver transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2015;47:1939–1944.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Weinmann A, Alt Y, Koch S, et al. Treatment and survival of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis associated hepatocellular carcinoma. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:210.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Reddy SK, Steel JL, Chen HW, et al. Outcomes of curative treatment for hepatocellular cancer in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis versus hepatitis C and alcoholic liver disease. Hepatology. 2012;55:1809–1819.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Reig M, Gambato M, Man NK, et al. Should patients with NAFLD/NASH be surveyed for HCC? Transplantation. 2019;103:39–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Liu D, Chan AC, Fong DY, Lo CM, Khong PL. Evidence-based surveillance imaging schedule after liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence. Transplantation. 2017;101:107–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Thoma C, Day CP, Trenell MI. Lifestyle interventions for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in adults: a systematic review. J Hepatol. 2012;56:255–266.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Said A, Akhter A. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of pharmacologic agents in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Ann Hepatol. 2017;16:538–547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Imprialos K, Stavropoulos K, Bouloukou S, Kerpiniotis G, Karagiannis A, Doumas M. Current and potential future pharmacological approaches for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2018;16:276–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Sumida Y, Seko Y, Yoneda M. Japan Study Group of N: novel antidiabetic medications for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hepatol Res. 2017;47:266–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Ganesh S, Rustgi VK. Current pharmacologic therapy for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Liver Dis. 2016;20:351–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Satapathy SK, Sanyal AJ. Novel treatment modalities for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2010;21:668–675.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Eshraghian A. Current and emerging pharmacological therapy for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2017;23:7495–7504.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Issa D, Patel V, Sanyal AJ. Future therapy for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver Int. 2018;38:56–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    McCoy SM, Campbell KL, Lassemillante AM, et al. Changes in dietary patterns and body composition within 12 months of liver transplantation. Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr. 2017;6:317–326.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Nickel F, Tapking C, Benner L, et al. Bariatric surgery as an efficient treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in a prospective study with 1-year follow-up: BariScan Study. Obes Surg. 2017;28:1342–1350.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Billeter AT, Senft J, Gotthardt D, et al. Combined nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus: sleeve gastrectomy or gastric bypass?—a controlled matched pair study of 34 patients. Obes Surg. 2016;26:1867–1874.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Stratopoulos C, Papakonstantinou A, Terzis I, et al. Changes in liver histology accompanying massive weight loss after gastroplasty for morbid obesity. Obes Surg. 2005;15:1154–1160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Mummadi RR, Kasturi KS, Chennareddygari S, Sood GK. Effect of bariatric surgery on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;6:1396–1402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Cobb WS, Heniford BT, Burns JM, Carbonell AM, Matthews BD, Kercher KW. Cirrhosis is not a contraindication to laparoscopic surgery. Surg Endosc. 2005;19:418–423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Klebanoff MJ, Corey KE, Chhatwal J, Kaplan LM, Chung RT, Hur C. Bariatric surgery for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a clinical and cost-effectiveness analysis. Hepatology. 2017;65:1156–1164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Heimbach JK, Watt KD, Poterucha JJ, et al. Combined liver transplantation and gastric sleeve resection for patients with medically complicated obesity and end-stage liver disease. Am J Transplant. 2013;13:363–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Lainas P, Dupond-Athenor A, Tranchart H, Dagher I. Safety and feasibility of single-port sleeve gastrectomy following liver transplantation. Obes Surg. 2018;28:874–876.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Andalib A, Aminian A, Khorgami Z, et al. Early postoperative outcomes of primary bariatric surgery in patients on chronic steroid or immunosuppressive therapy. Obes Surg. 2016;26:1479–1486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Butte JM, Devaud N, Jarufe NP, et al. Sleeve gastrectomy as treatment for severe obesity after orthotopic liver transplantation. Obes Surg. 2007;17:1517–1519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Hejlova I, Honsova E, Sticova E, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of steatosis after liver transplantation and patient outcomes. Liver Transpl. 2016;22:644–655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Malik SM, deVera ME, Fontes P, et al. Outcome after liver transplantation for NASH cirrhosis. Am J Transplant. 2009;9:782–793.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Dureja P, Mellinger J, Agni R, et al. NAFLD recurrence in liver transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2011;91:684–689.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naga Swetha Samji
    • 1
  • Rajanshu Verma
    • 2
  • Krishna Chaitanya Keri
    • 3
  • Ashwani K. Singal
    • 4
  • Aijaz Ahmed
    • 5
  • Mary Rinella
    • 6
  • David Bernstein
    • 7
  • Manal F. Abdelmalek
    • 8
  • Sanjaya K. Satapathy
    • 9
    Email author
  1. 1.Tennova Cleveland HospitalClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Division of Transplant Surgery, Department of SurgeryMethodist University Hospital Transplant Institute, University of Tennessee Health Sciences CenterMemphisUSA
  3. 3.Tenessee Kidney CareOoltewahUSA
  4. 4.University of South Dakota Sanford School of MedicineAvera Transplant InstituteSioux FallsUSA
  5. 5.Division of Gastroenterology and HepatologyStanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA
  6. 6.Department of MedicineNorthwestern University, Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA
  7. 7.Division of Hepatology and Sandra Atlas Bass Center for Liver DiseasesNorthwell HealthManhassetUSA
  8. 8.Division of Gastroenterology/HepatologyDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  9. 9.Division of Hepatology at Sandra Atlas Bass Center for Liver Diseases and TransplantationDonald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell HealthManhassetUSA

Personalised recommendations