Positive Association Between Helicobacter pylori Infection and Metabolic Syndrome in a Korean Population: A Multicenter Nationwide Study

  • Seon Hee Lim
  • Nayoung KimEmail author
  • Jin Won Kwon
  • Sung Eun Kim
  • Gwang Ho Baik
  • Ju Yup Lee
  • Kyung Sik Park
  • Jeong Eun Shin
  • Hyun Joo Song
  • Dae-Seong Myung
  • Suck Chei Choi
  • Hyun Jin Kim
  • Joo Hyun Lim
  • Jeong Yoon Yim
  • Joo Sung Kim
Original Article


Background and Aim

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection causes extra-gastrointestinal as well as gastric diseases. This analytical cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the association between H. pylori infection and metabolic syndrome in a Korean population.


Anthropometric and metabolic data, as well as anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies, were measured in 21,106 subjects who participated in a health checkup between January 2016 and June 2017. The classification of metabolic syndrome followed the revised National Cholesterol Education Program criteria.


After excluding subjects with a history of H. pylori eradication therapy, or gastric symptoms, the seropositivity of H. pylori was 43.2% in 15,195 subjects. H. pylori-positive participants had significantly higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) than did seronegative participants (P < 0.05). After adjusting for confounders, high TC, low HDL-C, and high LDL-C were associated with H. pylori seropositivity. Finally, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in H. pylori-seropositive subjects than in negative ones (27.2% vs. 21.0%, P < 0.05), and H. pylori seropositivity increased the likelihood of metabolic syndrome (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.09–1.31, P < 0.001) after adjusting for sex, age, BMI, smoking, residence, household income, and education level. However, the association between H. pylori seropositivity and metabolic syndrome disappeared in those ≥ 65 years old.


H. pylori infection plays an independent role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in Koreans under 65 years old.


Helicobacter pylori Metabolic syndrome Cholesterol Lipid profile 


H. pylori

Helicobacter pylori


Helicobacter pylori


Metabolic syndrome


Total cholesterol


Waist circumference


World Health Organization


Body mass index


Blood pressure




Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol


High-density lipoprotein cholesterol


Fasting glucose

Anti-HP IgG

Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G antibody


National Cholesterol Education Program


Odds ratio


Confidence interval


Insulin resistance



This work was supported by a Grant (No. 2011-0030001) of the National Research Foundation (NRF) for the Global Core Research Center (GCRC) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP), Republic of Korea.

Author’s contributions

SHL collected and analyzed the data and drafted the article. NK designed and supervised this study and edited this manuscript. JWK provided statistical support and helped to provide the table and figures. NK, SHL, SEK, GHP, JYL, KSP, JES, HJS, DSM, SCC, HJK and JHL helped to collect the data and edited the manuscript. JYY and JSK reviewed the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final draft of this manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee, the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki, and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all participants in this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seon Hee Lim
    • 1
  • Nayoung Kim
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Jin Won Kwon
    • 4
  • Sung Eun Kim
    • 5
  • Gwang Ho Baik
    • 6
  • Ju Yup Lee
    • 7
  • Kyung Sik Park
    • 7
  • Jeong Eun Shin
    • 8
  • Hyun Joo Song
    • 9
  • Dae-Seong Myung
    • 10
  • Suck Chei Choi
    • 11
  • Hyun Jin Kim
    • 12
  • Joo Hyun Lim
    • 1
  • Jeong Yoon Yim
    • 1
  • Joo Sung Kim
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine and Healthcare Research Institute, Healthcare System Gangnam Center Seoul National University HospitalSeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Internal MedicineSeoul National University Bundang HospitalSeongnamSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research InstituteSeoul National University College of MedicineSeoulSouth Korea
  4. 4.College of PharmacyKyungpook National UniversityDaeguSouth Korea
  5. 5.Department of Internal MedicineKosin University College of MedicineBusanSouth Korea
  6. 6.Department of Internal MedicineChuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of MedicineChuncheonSouth Korea
  7. 7.Department of Internal MedicineKeimyung University College of MedicineDaeguSouth Korea
  8. 8.Department of Internal MedicineDankook University College of MedicineCheonanSouth Korea
  9. 9.Department of Internal MedicineJeju National University School of MedicineJejuSouth Korea
  10. 10.Department of Internal MedicineChonnam National University School of MedicineHwasunSouth Korea
  11. 11.Department of Internal MedicineWonkwang University College of MedicineIksanSouth Korea
  12. 12.Department of Internal Medicine and Institute of Health ScienceGyeongsang National University School of MedicineJinjuSouth Korea

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