Prevalence of Small Intestine Carcinoid Tumors: A US Population-Based Study 2012–2017

  • Mohannad Abou Saleh
  • Emad Mansoor
  • Mohammad Anindo
  • Gerard Isenberg
Original Article


Background and Aims

Most carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are located in the small bowel (SB). Epidemiological studies of these tumors have been limited by small sample sizes. Our aim was to evaluate the epidemiology of SB carcinoids (SBCs) using a large database.


We queried a commercial database (Explorys), an aggregate of electronic health data from 26 US healthcare systems. We identified patients with SBCs between 2012 and 2017. We evaluated the epidemiology of SBC and identified possible risk factors.


Of the 35,798,290 individuals in the database between 2012 and 2017, we identified 3280 patients with SBCs, with a prevalence of 9.2/100,000. Prevalence was higher in men [odds ratio (OR) 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.153–1.322, p < 0.0001], whites [OR 2.031, 95% CI 1.872–2.203, p < 0.0001], and elderly (aged > 65) [OR 4.856, 95% CI 4.533–5.203, p < 0.0001]. Patients with SBCs were more likely to have a history of smoking [OR 2.749, 95% CI 2.549–2.970, p < 0.0001], alcohol use [OR 2.031, 95% CI 1.864–2.21, p < 0.0001], obesity (BMI > 30) [OR 3.476, 95% CI 3.213–3.761, p < 0.0001], diabetes mellitus [OR 4.198, 95% CI 3.900–4.519, p < 0.0001], and a family history of cancer [OR 5.902, 95% CI 5.396–6.456, p < 0.0001].


This is one of the largest studies done on the prevalence of SBC. The prevalence of 9.2/100,000 individuals is higher than previously reported. Further genetic and environmental studies are needed to understand the potential mechanisms for the risk factors identified in this study.


Risk factors Cancer Epidemiology Neuroendocrine 



Body mass index


Crohn’s disease


Confidence interval


Diabetes mellitus


Electronic health record


Failure to thrive




Health data gateway


Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act


Inflammatory bowel disease


Institutional review board


Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1


National Cancer Institute


Neuroendocrine tumor


Odds ratio


Small bowel


Small bowel carcinoid


Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results


Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms


Ulcerative colitis


United States


Author’s contribution

MAS, EM, and MA were involved in study conception and design; MAS and EM contributed to acquisition of data; MAS, EM, and GI analysed and interpreted the data; MAS, EM, MA, and GI drafted the manuscript; GI was involved in critical revision; MAS and EM were involved in statistical analysis; GI supervised the study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohannad Abou Saleh
    • 1
  • Emad Mansoor
    • 2
  • Mohammad Anindo
    • 3
  • Gerard Isenberg
    • 2
  1. 1.Digestive Disease Institute, Cleveland Clinic FoundationClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Division of Gastroenterology and Liver Disease, Department of MedicineUniversity Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA
  3. 3.Department of MedicineHattiesburg ClinicHattiesburgUSA

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