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Prevalence of Small Intestine Carcinoid Tumors: A US Population-Based Study 2012–2017

  • Mohannad Abou Saleh
  • Emad Mansoor
  • Mohammad Anindo
  • Gerard Isenberg
Original Article

Abstract

Background and Aims

Most carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are located in the small bowel (SB). Epidemiological studies of these tumors have been limited by small sample sizes. Our aim was to evaluate the epidemiology of SB carcinoids (SBCs) using a large database.

Methods

We queried a commercial database (Explorys), an aggregate of electronic health data from 26 US healthcare systems. We identified patients with SBCs between 2012 and 2017. We evaluated the epidemiology of SBC and identified possible risk factors.

Results

Of the 35,798,290 individuals in the database between 2012 and 2017, we identified 3280 patients with SBCs, with a prevalence of 9.2/100,000. Prevalence was higher in men [odds ratio (OR) 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.153–1.322, p < 0.0001], whites [OR 2.031, 95% CI 1.872–2.203, p < 0.0001], and elderly (aged > 65) [OR 4.856, 95% CI 4.533–5.203, p < 0.0001]. Patients with SBCs were more likely to have a history of smoking [OR 2.749, 95% CI 2.549–2.970, p < 0.0001], alcohol use [OR 2.031, 95% CI 1.864–2.21, p < 0.0001], obesity (BMI > 30) [OR 3.476, 95% CI 3.213–3.761, p < 0.0001], diabetes mellitus [OR 4.198, 95% CI 3.900–4.519, p < 0.0001], and a family history of cancer [OR 5.902, 95% CI 5.396–6.456, p < 0.0001].

Conclusions

This is one of the largest studies done on the prevalence of SBC. The prevalence of 9.2/100,000 individuals is higher than previously reported. Further genetic and environmental studies are needed to understand the potential mechanisms for the risk factors identified in this study.

Keywords

Risk factors Cancer Epidemiology Neuroendocrine 

Abbreviations

BMI

Body mass index

CD

Crohn’s disease

CI

Confidence interval

DM

Diabetes mellitus

EHR

Electronic health record

FTT

Failure to thrive

GI

Gastrointestinal

HDG

Health data gateway

HIPAA

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

IBD

Inflammatory bowel disease

IRB

Institutional review board

MEN1

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

NCI

National Cancer Institute

NET

Neuroendocrine tumor

OR

Odds ratio

SB

Small bowel

SBC

Small bowel carcinoid

SEER

Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results

SNOMED-CT

Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms

UC

Ulcerative colitis

US

United States

Notes

Author’s contribution

MAS, EM, and MA were involved in study conception and design; MAS and EM contributed to acquisition of data; MAS, EM, and GI analysed and interpreted the data; MAS, EM, MA, and GI drafted the manuscript; GI was involved in critical revision; MAS and EM were involved in statistical analysis; GI supervised the study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohannad Abou Saleh
    • 1
  • Emad Mansoor
    • 2
  • Mohammad Anindo
    • 3
  • Gerard Isenberg
    • 2
  1. 1.Digestive Disease Institute, Cleveland Clinic FoundationClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Division of Gastroenterology and Liver Disease, Department of MedicineUniversity Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA
  3. 3.Department of MedicineHattiesburg ClinicHattiesburgUSA

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