Checkpoint Inhibitors: Conquering Cancer with a Little (T)-Help from Our Microbial Friends



Gut microbiota Cancer immunotherapy Checkpoint inhibitors Anti-PD(L) 1 Anti-CTLA-4 


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Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest to declare regarding this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Noelle Asmar
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tony Ibrahim
    • 3
    • 4
  • Jean-François Rey
    • 1
  1. 1.Gastroenterology and Endoscopy DepartmentArnault Tzanck InstituteSaint-Laurent du VarFrance
  2. 2.Gastroenterology Department, Faculty of MedicineSaint Joseph UniversityBeirutLebanon
  3. 3.Hematology-Oncology Department, Faculty of MedicineSaint Joseph UniversityBeirutLebanon
  4. 4.Medical Oncology DepartmentGustave Roussy InstituteVillejuifFrance

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