Factors Related to Upper Gastrointestinal Symptom Generation in 2275 Helicobacter pylori Seroprevalent Adults
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Background and Aim
Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) symptoms are common; however, the role of Helicobacter pylori and gastric corpus atrophy in the generation of these symptoms is controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for UGI symptoms in adults in an endemic area of H. pylori infection.
Korean adults who completed questionnaires on the day of serum anti-H. pylori IgG and pepsinogen (PG) assays before UGI endoscopy were included. Gastric corpus atrophy was based on the criteria of a serum PG I/II ratio <3.0 and a PG I <70 ng/ml.
Of the 2275 included subjects, 723 (31.8%) had at least one UGI symptom. A total of 374 (16.4%) subjects had multiple symptoms without significant correlations between the symptoms (λ < 0.2). The H. pylori serology assay was positive in 1382 (60.7%) subjects, and gastric corpus atrophy was present in 291 (12.8%). Neither H. pylori seropositivity (p = 0.077) nor gastric corpus atrophy (p = 0.138) was related to the presence of UGI symptoms. Female gender and smoking were independent risk factors for heartburn and upper abdominal pain (all p < 0.001). Furthermore, female gender was the only independent risk factor for multiple UGI symptoms (p < 0.001), globus sensation (p < 0.001), early satiety (p < 0.001), epigastric soreness (p = 0.001), and chest discomfort (p = 0.003).
In an H. pylori seroprevalent population, female gender is the most common risk factor followed by smoking for UGI symptom generation. Neither H. pylori seropositivity nor gastric corpus atrophy is an independent risk factor for UGI symptom generation.
KeywordsUpper gastrointestinal symptom Helicobacter pylori Gastric atrophy Female
This study was supported by Konkuk University in 2015.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest