Digestive Diseases and Sciences

, Volume 62, Issue 4, pp 984–993 | Cite as

Prevalence of Psychiatric Comorbidity in Symptomatic Gastroesophageal Reflux Subgroups

  • Mustafa Melih BilgiEmail author
  • Rukiye Vardar
  • Esra Yıldırım
  • Baybars Veznedaroğlu
  • Serhat Bor
Original Article



Limited data exist regarding the psychosocial aspects of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Some GERD subgroups, such as functional heartburn and hypersensitive esophagus, might show different psychiatric comorbidities than others.


We aimed to evaluate the psychiatric comorbidities of GERD subgroups using a cross-sectional design.


A group of GERD patients at a tertiary outpatient clinic were evaluated via upper GIS (gastrointestinal system) endoscopy, esophageal manometry, and 24-h impedance–pH monitoring. Thirty-nine patients diagnosed with erosive reflux disease, 44 with non-erosive reflux disease, 20 with functional heartburn, 11 with hypersensitive esophagus, and 44 healthy controls participated. Psychiatric diagnoses were made using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV. Psychometric measurements of the patients were performed using the Somatosensory Amplification Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Short-Form 36. Healthy controls were evaluated with the same psychometric scales except for the Short-Form 36.


All of the GERD subgroups were significantly more depressed than the control group. Depressive disorders were significantly more prevalent in the functional heartburn group than in the non-erosive reflux disease and erosive reflux disease groups. The trait anxiety level of the functional heartburn group was significantly higher than those of the control and non-erosive reflux disease groups. The quality of life scores of the GERD subgroups were significantly lower than the population standards.


Depressive disorders were frequently comorbid in the GERD subgroups studied (30–65 %). It is essential to consider the high prevalence rates of comorbid depression when managing GERD.


Gastroesophageal reflux disease Functional gastrointestinal disorders Comorbidity Psychology 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mustafa Melih Bilgi
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
    Email author
  • Rukiye Vardar
    • 3
    • 4
  • Esra Yıldırım
    • 3
    • 4
  • Baybars Veznedaroğlu
    • 2
  • Serhat Bor
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Izmir Bozyaka Educational and Research HospitalIzmirTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry, School of MedicineEge UniversityBornovaTurkey
  3. 3.Division of Gastroenterology, School of MedicineEge UniversityBornovaTurkey
  4. 4.Ege Reflux GroupIzmirTurkey
  5. 5.Karabaglar State ClinicsKarabaglarTurkey

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