Digestive Diseases and Sciences

, Volume 61, Issue 8, pp 2205–2216 | Cite as

Preventative Care in the Patient with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: What Is New?

  • Jason S. Reich
  • Francis A. Farraye
  • Sharmeel K. WasanEmail author


Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) do not receive routine preventative care at the same rate as general medical patients. This patient population is at increased risk of vaccine preventable illness such as influenza and pneumococcal pneumonia. This review will discuss health maintenance needs and preventative care issues in patients with IBD.


IBD patient Immunization Vaccination Health maintenance Immunosuppressed 


Author contributions

Jason S. Reich MD wrote manuscript; Francis A. Farraye, MD, MSc reviewed manuscript and made critical revisions; Sharmeel K. Wasan MD reviewed manuscript and made critical revisions and approval of final submission.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors listed above declare that there are no relevant conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Selby L, Kane S, Wilson J, et al. Receipt of preventive health services by IBD patients is significantly lower than by primary care patients. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008;14:253–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Selby L, Hoellein A, Wilson JF. Are primary care providers uncomfortable providing routine preventive care of inflammatory bowel disease patients. Dig Dis Sci. 2011;56:819–824. doi: 10.1007/s10620-010-1329-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wasan SK, Baker SE, Skolnik PR, Farraye FA. A practical guide to vaccinating the inflammatory bowel disease patient. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105:1231–1238. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2009.733.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Esteve M, Saro C, González-huix F, Suarez F, Forné M, Viver JM. Chronic hepatitis B reactivation following infliximab therapy in Crohn’s disease patients: need for primary prophylaxis. Gut. 2004;53:1363–1365.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Montiel PM, Solis JA, Chirinos JA, Acasis B, Sánchez F, Rodríguez S. Hepatitis B virus reactivation during therapy with etanercept in an HBsAg-negative and anti-HBs-positive patient. Liver Int. 2008;28:718–720. doi: 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2007.01665.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Harper SA, Fukuda K, Uyeki TM, Cox NJ, Bridges CB. Prevention and control of influenza: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2004;53:1–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    CDC. Reason reported by Medicare beneficiaries for not receiving influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations—United States 1996. MMWR. 1999;48:556–980.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Malhi G, Rumman A, Thanabalan R, et al. Vaccination in inflammatory bowel disease patients: attitudes, knowledge, and uptake. J Crohn’s Colitis. 2015;6:439–444. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjv064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wasan SK, Coukos JA, Farraye FA. Vaccinating the inflammatory bowel disease patient: deficiencies in gastroenterologists knowledge. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011;12:2536–2540. doi: 10.1002/ibd.21667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dotan I, Vigodman S, Malter L, et al. Azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine therapy has no significant effect on cellular or humoral immune responses in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology. 2007;132:A-51.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Melmed GY, Agarwal N, Frenck RW, et al. Immunosuppression impairs response to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105:148–154. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2009.523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sands BE, Cuffari C, et al. Guidelines for immunizations in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2004;10:677–692.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rahier JF, Papay P, Salleron J, et al. H1N1 vaccines in a large observational cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with immunomodulators and biological therapy. Gut. 2011;60:456–462. doi: 10.1136/gut.2010.233981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dotan I, Werner L, Vigodman S, et al. Normal response to vaccines in inflammatory bowel disease patients treated with thiopurines. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2012;18:261–268. doi: 10.1002/ibd.21688.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Watson JC, Hadler SC, Dykewicz CA, Reef S, Phillips L. Measles, mumps, and rubella—vaccine use and strategies for elimination of measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome and control of mumps: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR. 1998;47:1–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tsai SY, Yang TY, Lin CL, Tsai YH, Kuo CF, Kao CH. Increased risk of varicella zoster virus infection in inflammatory bowel disease in an Asian population: a nationwide population-based cohort study. Int J Clin Pract. 2015;69:228–234. doi: 10.1111/ijcp.12508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ham M, Cullen G, Cheifetz AS. Varicella zoster virus infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2013;1:56–58.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kotton CN. Nailing down the shingles in IBD. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2007;13:1178–1179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Marin M, Güris D, Chaves SS, Schmid S, Seward JF. Prevention of varicella recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR. 2007;56:1–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kawai K, Gebremeskel BG, Acosta CJ. Systematic review of incidence and complications of herpes zoster: towards a global perspective. BMJ Open. 2014;4:e004833. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-004833.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gupta G, Lautenbach E, Lewis JD. Incidence and risk factors for herpes zoster among patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;4:1483–1490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Harpaz R, Ortega-Sanchez IR, Seward JF, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prevention of herpes zoster recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR. 2008;57:1–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhang J, Xie F, Delzell E, et al. Association between vaccination for herpes zoster and risk of herpes zoster infection among older patients with selected immune-mediated diseases. JAMA. 2012;308:43–49. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.7304.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wasan, S., Zullow, S., Berg, A. Herpes zoster vaccine response in inflammatory bowel disease patients on low dose immunosuppresion. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2015 (in press).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Singh A, Englund K. Q: Who should receive the shingles vaccine? Cleve Clin J Med. 2009;76:45–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mamula P, Markowitz JE, Piccoli DA, Klimov A, Cohen L, Baldassano RN. Immune response to influenza vaccine in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;5:851–856.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lu Y, Jacobson DL, Ashworth LA, et al. Immune response to influenza vaccine in children with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104:444–453. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2008.120.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gelinck LB, van der Bijl AE, Beyer WE, et al. The effect of antitumour necrosis factor alpha treatment on the antibody response to influenza vaccination. Ann Rheum Dis. 2008;67:713–716.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    PCV13 (Pneumococcal Conjugate) Vaccine. CDC, 2014-9-29, cited 2015-6-1
  30. 30.
    Lee CK, Kim HS, Ye BD, et al. Patients with Crohn’s disease on anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy are at significant risk of inadequate response to the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. J Crohns Colitis. 2014;5:384–391. doi: 10.1016/j.crohns.2013.09.022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Brogan MD, Shanahan F, Oliver M, Stevens RH, Targan SR. Defective memory B cell formation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease following tetanus toxoid booster immunization. J Clin Lab Immunol. 1987;24:69–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nielsen HJ, Mortensen T, Holten-andersen M, Brünner N, Sørensen S, Rask-madsen J. Increased levels of specific leukocyte- and platelet-derived substances during normal anti-tetanus antibody synthesis in patients with inactive Crohn disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2001;36:265–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommended adult immunization schedule—United States, 2009. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2008;57:53.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rungoe C, Simonsen J, Riis L, Frisch M, Langholz E, Jess T. Inflammatory bowel disease and cervical neoplasia: a population-based nationwide cohort study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2014.07.036.
  35. 35.
    Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Recommended adult immunization schedule: United States, 2009*. Ann Intern Med. 2009;150:40–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Recommendations on the use of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in males—Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60:1705–1708.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ben Musa R, Gampa A, Basu S, et al. Hepatitis B vaccination in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20:15358–15366. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i41.15358.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gisbert JP, Villagrasa JR, Rodriguez-Nogueiras A, Chaparro M. Efficacy of hepatitis B vaccination and revaccination and factors impacting response in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012;107:1460–1466. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2012.79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Long, MD, Gulati, A, Wohl, D, Herfarth, H. Immunizations in pediatric and adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a practical case-based approach. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2015Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cardell K, Akerlind B, Sallberg M, Fryden A. Excellent response rate to a double dose of the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine in previous nonresponders to hepatitis B vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:299–304. doi: 10.1086/589722.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    CDC. Prevention and control of meningococcal disease: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2013;62:1–22.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Soonawala D, van Eggermond A, Fidder H, Visser L. Pretravel preparation and travel-related morbidity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2012;18:2079–2085.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ben-Horin S, Bujanover Y, Goldstein S, et al. Travel-associated health risks for patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;10:160–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rahier JF, Ben-Horin S, Chowers Y, et al. European evidence-based consensus on the prevention, diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections in inflammatory bowel disease. J Crohn’s Colitis. 2009;3:47–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Esteve M, Loras C, García-Planella E. Inflammatory bowel disease in travelers: choosing the right vaccines and check-ups. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:2708–2714.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zanetti AR, Van Damme P, Shouval D. The global impact of vaccination against hepatitis B: a historical overview. Vaccine. 2008;26:6266–6273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lopez AL, Clemens JD, Deen J, Jodar L. Cholera vaccines for the developing world. Hum Vaccin. 2008;4:165–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Burchard GD, Caumes E, Connor BA, et al. Expert opinion on vaccination of travelers against Japanese encephalitis. J Travel Med. 2009;16:204–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Dutch national guidelines on travel medicine. LCR Committee, 2010: 1–544Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Roberts H, Rai SN, Pan J, et al. Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease and the influence of smoking. Digestion. 2014;90:122. doi: 10.1159/000363228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ott C, Takses A, Obermeier F, Schnoy E, Müller M. Smoking increases the risk of extraintestinal manifestations in Crohn’s disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20:12269–12276. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i34.12269.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cosnes J. What is the link between the use of tobacco and IBD? Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008;14:S14–S15. doi: 10.1002/ibd.20555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Franchimont DP, Louis E, Croes F, Belaiche J. Clinical pattern of corticosteroid dependent Crohn’s disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1998;10:821–825.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Leung Y, Kaplan GG, Rioux KP, et al. Assessment of variables associated with smoking cessation in Crohn’s disease. Dig Dis Sci. 2012;57:1026–1032. doi: 10.1007/s10620-012-2038-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, et al. Evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). JAMA. 2014;311:507–520. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.284427.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Moscandrew M, Mahadevan U, Kane S. General health maintenance in IBD. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2009;9:1399–1409. doi: 10.1002/ibd.20944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hwang C, Ross V, Mahadevan U. Micronutrient deficiencies in inflammatory bowel disease: from A to zinc. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2012;18:1961–1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hill GL, Blackett RL, Pickford I, et al. Malnutrition in surgical patients. An unrecognised problem. Lancet. 1977;1:689–692.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Limdi J, Aggarwal D, McLaughlin J. Dietary practices and beliefs in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2016;22:164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lee D, Albenberg L, Compher C, et al. Diet in the pathogenesis and treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. Gastroenterology. 2015;. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2015.01.007.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Heuschkel R. Enteral nutrition in children with Crohn’s disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2000;31:575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Brown AC, Rampertab SD, Mullin GE. Existing dietary guidelines for Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;5:411–425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ahmed SF, Elmantaser M. Secondary osteoporosis. Endocr Dev. 2009;16:170–190. doi: 10.1159/000223695.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Shirazi KM, Somi MH, Rezaeifar P, Fattahi I, Khoshbaten M, Ahmadzadeh M. Bone density and bone metabolism in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2012;4:241–247. doi: 10.4103/1319-3767.98428.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jahnsen J, Falch JA, Aadland E, Mowinckel P. Bone mineral density is reduced in patients with Crohn’s disease but not in patients ulcerative colitis: a population based study. Gut. 1997;40:313–319.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Manolakis CS, Cash BD. Health maintenance and inflammatory bowel disease. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2014;10:402. doi: 10.1007/s11894-014-0402-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Mushtaq T, Ahmed SF. The impact of corticosteroids on growth and bone health. Arch Dis Child. 2002;2:93–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gill JA, Goldsmith S, Kumar, A. Evaluating bone health in inflammatory bowel disease—a single tertiary care Veterans Hospital experience. Indian J Gastroenterol 2015Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    O’Sullivan M. Vitamin D as a novel therapy in inflammatory bowel disease: new hope or false dawn? Proc Nutr Soc. 2015;74:5–12. doi: 10.1017/S0029665114001621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Etzel JP, Larson MF, Anawalt BD, Collins J, Dominitz JA. Assessment and management of low bone density in inflammatory bowel disease and performance of professional society guidelines. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011;17:2122–2129. doi: 10.1002/ibd.21601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kornbluth A, Haynes M, Feldman S, et al. Do guidelines matter? Implementation of the ACG and AGA osteoporosis screening guidelines in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients who meet the guidelines’ criteria. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101:1546–1550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health. American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement: guidelines on osteoporosis in gastrointestinal diseases. Gastroenterology. 2003;124:791–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Walker EA, Gelfand MD, Gelfand AN, Creed F, Katon WJ. The relationship of current psychiatric disorder to functional disability and distress in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 1996;18:220–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Fuller-Thomson E, Sulman J. Depression and inflammatory bowel disease: findings from two nationally representative Canadian surveys. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006;12:697–707.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Walker JR, Ediger JP, Graff LA, et al. The Manitoba IBD cohort study: a population-based study of the prevalence of lifetime and 12-month anxiety and mood disorders. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103:1989–1997. doi: 10.1111/j.1572-0241.2008.01980.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    McDermott E, Mullen G, Moloney J, et al. Body image dissatisfaction: clinical features, and psychosocial disability in inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2015;2:353–360. doi: 10.1097/MIB.0000000000000287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Nimalasuriya K, Compton MT, Guillory VJ. Screening adults for depression in primary care: a position statement of the American College of Preventive Medicine. J Fam Pract. 2009;58:535–538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Moody G, Probert CS, Srivastava EM, Rhodes J, Mayberry JF. Sexual dysfunction amongst women with Crohn’s disease: a hidden problem. Digestion. 1992;52:179–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Moleski SM, Choudhary C. Special considerations for women with IBD. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2011;40:387–398. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2011.03.003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Borum ML, Igiehon E, Shafa S. Physicians may inadequately address sexuality in women with inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2010;2:1236–1243. doi: 10.1002/ibd.20955.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Taylor JF, Rosen RC, Leiblum SR. Self-report assessment of female sexual function: psychometric evaluation of the Brief Index of Sexual Functioning for Women. Arch Sex Behav. 1994;6:627–643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    O’Leary MP, Fowler FJ, Lenderking WR, et al. A brief male sexual function inventory for urology. Urology. 1995;46:697–706.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Chung WS, Lin CL, Hsu WH, Kao CH. Inflammatory bowel disease increases the risks of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in the hospitalized patients: a nationwide cohort study. Thromb Res. 2015;135:492–496. doi: 10.1016/j.thromres.2014.12.025.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Faculty of Family Planning & Reproductive Health Care, Clinical Effectiveness Unit. Contraceptive choices for women with inflammatory bowel disease. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2003;3:127–135.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    World Health Organization (WHO). Improving access to quality care in family planning. Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use. 2nd ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2000.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Petrelli EA, McKinley M, Troncale FJ. Ocular manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease. Ann Ophthalmol. 1982;14:356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lyons JL, Rosenbaum JT. Uveitis associated with inflammatory bowel disease compared with uveitis associated with spondyloarthropathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1997;115:61–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Saag KG, Koehnke R, Caldwell JR, et al. Low dose long-term corticosteroid therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: an analysis of serious adverse events. Am J Med. 1994;96:115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Nieminen U, Färkkilä M. Malignancies in inflammatory bowel disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2015;50:81–89. doi: 10.3109/00365521.2014.992041.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Collins PD, Mpofu C, Watson AJ, Rhodes JM. Strategies for detecting colon cancer and/or dysplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;2:CD000279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Konijeti GG, Shrime MG, Ananthakrishnan AN, Chan AT. Cost-effectiveness analysis of chromoendoscopy for colorectal cancer surveillance in patients with ulcerative colitis. Gastrointest Endosc. 2014;79:455–465. doi: 10.1016/j.gie.2013.10.026.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Laine L, Kaltenbach T, Barkun A, et al. SCENIC international consensus statement on surveillance and management of dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology. 2015;2015:639–651. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2015.01.031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Shergill AK, Lightdale JR, Bruining DH, et al. The role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastrointest Endosc. 2015;81:1101–1121. doi: 10.1016/j.gie.2014.10.030.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kornbluth A, Sachar DB. Ulcerative colitis practice guidelines in adults: American college of gastroenterology, practice parameters committee. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105:501–523. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2009.727.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Farraye FA, Odze RD, Eaden J, et al. AGA medical position statement on the diagnosis and management of colorectal neoplasia in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:738–745.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Jess T, Horváth-Puhó E, Fallingborg J, Rasmussen HH, Jacobsen BA. Cancer risk in inflammatory bowel disease according to patient phenotype and treatment: a Danish population-based cohort study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013;108:1869–1876. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2013.249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Rungoe C, Simonsen J, Riis L, Frisch M, Langholz E, Jess T. Inflammatory bowel disease and cervical neoplasia: a population-based nationwide cohort study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;13:693–700. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2014.07.036.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kane S, Khatibi B, Reddy D. Higher incidence of abnormal Pap smears in women with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103:631–636.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    ACOG Practice Bulletin no. 109 Cervical cytology screening. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;114:1409–1420. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181c6f8a4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Bjorge T, Engeland A, Luostarinen T, et al. Human papillomavirus infection as a risk factor for anal and perianal skin cancer in a prospective study. Br J Cancer. 2002;87:61–64.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Palefsky JM, Holly EA, Gonzales J, Berline J, Ahn DK, Greenspan JS. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer. Cancer Res. 1991;51:1014–1019.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Zaki SR, Judd R, Coffield LM, Greer P, Rolsston F, Evatt BL. Human papillomavirus infection and anal carcinoma. Retrospective analysis by in situ hybridization and the polymerase chain reaction. Am J Pathol. 1992;140:1345–1355.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    New York State AIDS Malignancy Consortium. Criteria for the medical care of adults with HIV infection. New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute 2004; pp. 1–18.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Long MD, Martin CF, Pipkin CA, Herfarth HH, Sandler RS, Kappelman MD. Risk of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer among patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology. 2012;143:390–399. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2012.05.004.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Singh S, Nagpal SJ, Mujrad MH, et al. Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with an increased risk of melanoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;12:210–218. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2013.04.033.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    McKenna MR, Stobaugh DJ, Deepak P. Melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer in inflammatory bowel disease patients following tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor monotherapy and in combination with thiopurines: analysis of the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System. J Gastrointest Liver Dis. 2014;23:267–271. doi: 10.15403/jgld.2014.1121.233.mrmk.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kremer JM, Alarcón GS, Lightfoot RW, et al. Methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis. Suggested guidelines for monitoring liver toxicity. American College of Rheumatology. Arthritis Rheum. 1994;37:316–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Pai M, Zwerling A, Menziers D. Systematic review: T-cell based assays for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection: an update. Ann Intern Med. 2008;149:177–184.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Wong SH, Ip M, Tang W, et al. Performance of interferon-gamma release assay for tuberculosis screening in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2014;20:2067–2072. doi: 10.1097/MIB.0000000000000147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Sandborn WJ, Colombel JF, Enns R, et al. Natalizumab induction and maintenance therapy for Crohn’s disease. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:1912–1925.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kleinschmidt-demasters BK, Tyler KL. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy complicating treatment with natalizumab and interferon beta-1a for multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:369–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Langer-Gould A, Atlas SW, Green AJ, Bollen AW, Pelletier D. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient treated with natalizumab. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:375–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Food and Drug Administration. Information on natalizumab (marketed as Tysabri). Food and Drug Administration, 2009.11.18, cited 2015.6.1 2009.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jason S. Reich
    • 1
  • Francis A. Farraye
    • 2
  • Sharmeel K. Wasan
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Internal Medicine ResidentBoston University Medical CenterBostonUSA
  2. 2.Section of GastroenterologyBoston Medical CenterBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations