Histological Assessment of NAFLD
- 1.2k Downloads
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a spectrum of histological lesions ranging from steatosis to a complex pattern with hepatocyte injury and inflammation in an appropriate clinical context. The disease has been artificially dichotomized into NAFL (steatosis) and NASH (steatosis with hepatocellular injury and inflammation), but it is increasingly clear that intermediate patterns may exist. More than NASH, the stage of fibrosis was shown to govern prognosis, and for such evaluation, a liver biopsy of adequate size and width is needed. Like for any other chronic liver diseases, semi-quantitative histologic scores have been proposed. They are not useful in clinical practice but concur to categorize homogeneous group of patients according to their histology. Pediatric NAFLD is a growing concern. While a subgroup of children may harbor different but characteristic histological patterns, most of them display a mixed pattern or features similar to the adults. Today, liver histology is the mainstay for clinical trials. Biopsy is used both for enrollment and for assessing benefit of clinical trials. End points such as reversion of NASH or regression of fibrosis are acceptable but require a clear histological definition.
KeywordsLiver biopsy NAFLD NASH Fibrosis
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
No conflict of interest.
- 5.Sanyal AJ, Friedman SL, McCullough AJ, Dimick-Santos L. Challenges and opportunities in drug and biomarker development for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: findings and recommendations from an American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases-U.S. Food and Drug Administration joint workshop. Hepatology. 2015;61:1392–1405.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 13.Bedossa P, FLIP Pathology Consortium. Utility and appropriateness of the fatty liver inhibition of progression (FLIP) algorithm and steatosis, activity, and fibrosis (SAF) score in the evaluation of biopsies of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology. 2014;60:565–575.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 14.Chalasani N, Younossi Z, Lavine JE, et al. The diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: practice guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, American College of Gastroenterology, and the American Gastroenterological Association. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012;107:811–826.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 34.Brunt EM, Kleiner DE, Wilson LA, et al. Portal chronic inflammation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): a histologic marker of advanced NAFLD—clinicopathologic correlations from the nonalcoholic steatohepatitis clinical research network. Hepatology. 2009;49:809–820.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 55.Torres DM, Jones FJ, Shaw JC, Williams CD, Ward JA, Harrison SA. Rosiglitazone versus rosiglitazone and metformin versus rosiglitazone and losartan in the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in humans: a 12-month randomized, prospective, open-label trial. Hepatology. 2011;54:1631–1639.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar