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Digestive Diseases and Sciences

, Volume 61, Issue 5, pp 1246–1267 | Cite as

Cardiovascular Disease and Myocardial Abnormalities in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

  • Alessandro Mantovani
  • Stefano Ballestri
  • Amedeo Lonardo
  • Giovanni TargherEmail author
Review

Abstract

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in many developed countries, affecting an estimated 30 % of the adult population. In this updated clinical review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the strong association between NAFLD and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and other functional, structural, and arrhythmic cardiac complications (e.g., left ventricular dysfunction, heart valve diseases and atrial fibrillation). We also briefly discuss the putative biological mechanisms linking NAFLD with these important extra-hepatic complications. To date, a large body of evidence has suggested that NAFLD is not simply a marker of CHD and other functional, structural, and arrhythmic cardiac complications, but also may play a part in the development and progression of these cardiac complications. The clinical implication of these findings is that patients with NAFLD may benefit from more intensive surveillance and early treatment interventions aimed at decreasing the risk of CHD and other cardiac and arrhythmic complications.

Keywords

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease Cardiovascular disease Cardiac disease Cardiac arrhythmias Myocardial dysfunction Heart valve diseases 

Notes

Acknowledgments

G. T. is supported in part by grants from the University School of Medicine of Verona.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

None.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alessandro Mantovani
    • 1
  • Stefano Ballestri
    • 2
  • Amedeo Lonardo
    • 3
  • Giovanni Targher
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of MedicineUniversity and Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria IntegrataVeronaItaly
  2. 2.Division of Internal Medicine, Pavullo HospitalAzienda USL of ModenaPavulloItaly
  3. 3.Outpatient Liver Clinic and Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, NOCSAE, Baggiovara, Azienda USLUniversity of Modena and Reggio EmiliaModenaItaly

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