Risk Factors Associated with Rebleeding in Patients with High Risk Peptic Ulcer Bleeding: Focusing on the Role of Second Look Endoscopy
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Re-bleeding after initial hemostasis in peptic ulcer bleeding can be life threatening. Identification of factors associated with re-bleeding is important. The aims of this study were to determine incidence of rebleeding in patients with high risk peptic ulcer bleeding and to evaluate factors associated with rebleeding.
Among patients diagnosed as upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage at seven hospitals in Daegu–Gyeongbuk, and one hospital in Gyeongnam, South Korea, from Feb 2011 to Dec 2013, 699 patients diagnosed as high risk peptic ulcer bleeding with Forrest classification above llb were included. The data were obtained in a prospective manner.
Among 699 patients, re-bleeding occurred in 64 (9.2 %) patients. Second look endoscopy was significantly more performed in the non-rebleeding group than the rebleeding group (81.8 vs 62.5 %, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, larger transfusion volume (≥5 units), and non-performance of second look endoscopy were found as risk factors for rebleeding in high risk peptic ulcer bleeding.
In our study, rebleeding was observed in 9.2 % of patients with high risk peptic ulcer bleeding. Performance of second look endoscopy seems to lower the risk of rebleeding in high risk peptic ulcer bleeding patients and caution should be paid to patients receiving high volume transfusion and on medication with NSAIDs.
KeywordsRebleeding Stomach ulcer Duodenal ulcer Second look endoscopy Blood transfusion
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.
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