Digestive Diseases and Sciences

, Volume 60, Issue 1, pp 234–242 | Cite as

Normal Controlled Attenuation Parameter Values: A Prospective Study of Healthy Subjects Undergoing Health Checkups and Liver Donors in Korea

  • Young Eun Chon
  • Kyu Sik Jung
  • Kwang Joon Kim
  • Dong Jin Joo
  • Beom Kyung Kim
  • Jun Yong Park
  • Do Young Kim
  • Sang Hoon Ahn
  • Kwang-Hyub Han
  • Seung Up KimEmail author
Original Article



The controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) is a noninvasive method of assessing hepatic steatosis. We defined the normal range of CAP values in healthy subjects and evaluated the associated factors.


CAP values were measured in a cohort of healthy subjects who were screened as living liver transplantation donors and those who underwent health checkups. Subjects with current or a history of chronic liver disease, abnormalities on liver-related laboratory tests, or fatty liver on ultrasonography or biopsy were excluded.


The mean age of the 264 recruited subjects (131 males and 133 females; 76 potential liver donors and 188 subjects who had undergone health checkups) was 49.2 years. The mean CAP value was 224.8 ± 38.7 dB/m (range 100.0–308.0 dB/m), and the range of normal CAP values (5th–95th percentiles) was 156.0–287.8 dB/m. The mean CAP value was significantly higher in the health checkup than in the potential liver donor group (227.5 ± 42.0 vs. 218.2 ± 28.3 dB/m, P = 0.040). CAP values did not differ significantly according to gender or age in either group (all P > 0.05). In a multivariate linear regression analysis, body mass index (β = 0.271, P = 0.024) and triglyceride levels (β = 0.348, P = 0.008) were found to be independently associated with CAP values.


We determined the normal range of CAP values and found that body mass index and triglyceride levels were associated with the CAP values of healthy subjects.


Controlled attenuation parameter Fatty liver Healthy subject Liver donor Normal value 



Controlled attenuation parameter


Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease


Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis


Liver stiffness value


Chronic liver disease


Body mass index


Hepatitis B virus surface antigen


Hepatitis C virus antibody


Alanine aminotransferase


Aspartate aminotransferase


Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase


Alkaline phosphatase


High-density lipoprotein


Low-density lipoprotein


Inter-quartile range


Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Young Eun Chon
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kyu Sik Jung
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kwang Joon Kim
    • 1
    • 3
  • Dong Jin Joo
    • 4
  • Beom Kyung Kim
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • Jun Yong Park
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • Do Young Kim
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • Sang Hoon Ahn
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
    • 6
  • Kwang-Hyub Han
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
    • 6
  • Seung Up Kim
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Internal MedicineYonsei University College of MedicineSeoulKorea
  2. 2.Institute of GastroenterologyYonsei University College of MedicineSeoulKorea
  3. 3.Institute of EndocrinologyYonsei University College of MedicineSeoulKorea
  4. 4.Department of SurgeryYonsei University College of MedicineSeoulKorea
  5. 5.Liver Cirrhosis Clinical Research CenterSeoulKorea
  6. 6.Brain Korea 21 Project of Medical ScienceSeoulKorea

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