Digestive Diseases and Sciences

, Volume 59, Issue 12, pp 3117–3121 | Cite as

Experience with OxyELITE Pro and Acute Liver Injury in Active Duty Service Members

  • Sean Foley
  • Evan Butlin
  • Wade Shields
  • Brent Lacey
Case Report


1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) is a common additive in sport supplements that was banned by the FDA in 2013. Specifically, this additive received much publication for its role in causing adverse cardiovascular events, particularly sudden cardiac death. However, it has been our experience that products containing this additive may also lead to acute liver injury and liver failure. We present a series of seven cases encountered by a military treatment facility in Southern California which involved the use of OxyELITE Pro, a sport supplement containing DMAA, that all resulted in acute liver injury with two cases requiring transplant for acute liver failure. To our knowledge, this is the first case series reported involving OxyELITE Pro or other DMAA-containing supplements with a specific focus on acute liver injury. This review is limited by the paucity of clinical studies and trials based on OxyElite Pro and its effect on the liver. The presented cases are notably observation, and no standardized diagnostic or treatment protocol was utilized. This series is important to the general population as a whole due to the prevalence of sport supplement use, and is particularly important for practitioners who work with the military or athletic populations due to the high use in these demographics. These cases are followed by a brief discussion regarding DMAA.


1,3-Dimethylamylamine 1,3-DMAA Drug-induced liver injury DILI OxyELITE Pro Sport supplements Sports supplements Liver failure Case series Active duty military 



The authors wish to acknowledge Dr. Rebecca Ensley for her contribution to the care of the two patients who required liver transplant.

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York (Outside the USA) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sean Foley
    • 1
  • Evan Butlin
    • 1
  • Wade Shields
    • 2
  • Brent Lacey
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Internal MedicineNaval Medical Center San DiegoSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Department of GastroenterologyNaval Medical Center San DiegoSan DiegoUSA

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