Digestive Diseases and Sciences

, Volume 57, Issue 2, pp 535–544

Adenovirus-36 Seropositivity Enhances Effects of Nutritional Intervention on Obesity, Bright Liver, and Insulin Resistance

  • Guglielmo M. Trovato
  • Giuseppe Fabio Martines
  • Francesca M. Trovato
  • Clara Pirri
  • Patrizia Pace
  • Adriana Garozzo
  • Angelo Castro
  • Daniela Catalano
Original Article



Obesity and liver steatosis are both currently attributed to inappropriate lifestyle and nutrition. Higher prevalence of human adenovirus Ad36 seropositivity (Ad36+) is reported only in obesity.


To investigate whether a lifestyle-nutritional intervention achieves different outcomes in NAFLD patients, i.e., if is blunted or enhanced according to Ad36 seropositivity status.


One-year nutritional intervention was planned and accomplished for 62 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease overweight–obese patients, studied by liver ultrasound, evaluating Bright Liver Score (BLS), by Homeostatic Model assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA), by body composition and Ad36+ assay. Lower salt/lower calories Mediterranean diet, physical activity increase, smoking withdrawal and lifestyle counseling, provided by a health psychologist, were given.


Ad36 seropositive patients have baseline greater BMI with the same level of BLS. Different prevalence of post-interventional response, significantly greater among Ad36+ patients, is observed: greater decrease of obesity, assessed by BMI, greater reduction of insulin resistance, assessed by HOMA and higher prevalence of bright liver disappearance.

A BMI-adjusted multiple linear regression model explains significantly 23.8% (p < 0.04) of the variance; significant predictive variables are Ad36 seropositivity (p < 0.012) and fat mass loss (p < 0.011) accounting for the variance of the occurrence of bright liver disappearance.


Ad36 previous infection is significantly associated with enhanced weight loss, bright liver disappearance, and recovery of insulin sensitivity through the chosen tailored nutritional interventional treatment. Nonetheless, Ad36 seronegative NAFLD patients’ fatty liver pattern improves, at a lower extent, also without significant weight loss: an effect of dietary changes profile, Mediterranean diet, not only of lowered food caloric intake, is conceivably operating.


Fatty liver Ultrasound Insulin resistance Mediterranean diet BMI Dietology 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guglielmo M. Trovato
    • 1
  • Giuseppe Fabio Martines
    • 1
  • Francesca M. Trovato
    • 1
  • Clara Pirri
    • 1
  • Patrizia Pace
    • 1
  • Adriana Garozzo
    • 2
  • Angelo Castro
    • 2
  • Daniela Catalano
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine, Clinica di Medicina Interna e Terapia Medica, Facoltà di Medicina e ChirurgiaUniversità di CataniaCataniaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Microbiological and Gynaecological Sciences, Facoltà di Medicina e ChirurgiaUniversità di CataniaCataniaItaly

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