Endoscopic Diagnosis of Open-Type Atrophic Gastritis Is Related to the Histological Diagnosis of Intestinal Metaplasia and Cdx2 Expression
Background and Objectives
Long-term Helicobacter pylori infection results in atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia (IM) with Cdx2 expression. We have tried to determine if there was a link between endoscopic and histological diagnosis of IM based on the status of aberrant Cdx2 expression.
One hundred and one subjects agreed to upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination, with biopsy sampling for histology, Giemsa, and Cdx2 immunohistochemical staining before and after the treatment. On endoscopic examination, atrophic gastritis was defined as discoloration with blood vessel transparency, and was classified as either closed or open. Metaplastic gastritis was defined by the presence of whitish patches, whitish plaques, and/or homogeneous whitish discoloration. Histologic analysis was performed to determine H. pylori density, intensity of acute polymorphonuclear cell infiltrates and chronic mononuclear infiltrates, gastric atrophy, and IM as demonstrated using immunohistochemistry for cdx2.
Cdx2 protein expression (P = 0.018) and the prevalence of histologically detected IM (P = 0.011) were higher in cases of endoscopically diagnosed open-type atrophic gastritis and metaplastic gastritis than in closed-type atrophic gastritis and nonatrophic/nonmetaplastic cases. The degree of activity (P = 0.006) and inflammation (P = 0.007) improved significantly after four weeks of successful H. pylori eradication treatment, whereas the degree of atrophy, metaplasia, and Cdx2 expression did not.
Unlike endoscopic diagnosis of closed-type atrophic gastritis, that of open-type atrophic gastritis is highly correlated with the histological diagnosis of IM and Cdx2 expression. Endoscopically diagnosed open-type atrophic gastritis and endoscopically diagnosed metaplastic gastritis have similar histological features, which suggests that a high percentage of IM cases are diagnosed as open-type atrophic gastritis by endoscopic examination.
KeywordsCdx2 Intestinal metaplasia Atrophic gastritis Helicobacter pylori
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