Characteristics and Outcomes of Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage in a Tertiary Referral Hospital
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Background and Aims
Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage remains a problem in spite of improved diagnosis and management. There is sparse knowledge of recent epidemiology and outcomes. We wanted to evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage over a 4-year period in a tertiary referral hospital.
We prospectively collected data on patients admitted with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage to John Hunter Hospital between August 2004 and December 2008. Variables of interest included age, gender, co-morbidities, and time to endoscopy. Main outcomes included etiology, treatment, and survival. Variceal and non-variceal bleeds were analyzed separately.
There were 792 admissions from 734 unique patients (61% male) with a mean age of 66 years. The most frequent causes of non-variceal bleeds (88%) included ulcers 265 (33%); Mallory Weiss tear 91 (11%); esophagitis 60 (8%), and malignancy 29 (4%). Most patients had one or more co-morbidity (74%). Transfusion was not employed in 41%. Overall mortality was 4.0% (5.4% in the variceal and 3.9% in the non-variceal group). Only 1.9% of patients had surgery.
Patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage are overall elderly with significant co-morbidities. Our overall mortality and surgery rates are lower than in previously published international data.
KeywordsAudit Upper gastrointestinal bleeding Gastric and duodenal ulcers Epidemiology
Analysis of variance
John Hunter Hospital
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Proton pump inhibitor
Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage
The authors would like to thank the medical, nursing, and allied health staff whose skills made this study possible.
Public hospital audit; No external sponsorship, grants or funding.
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