Digestive Diseases and Sciences

, Volume 55, Issue 6, pp 1540–1546

Biliary Complications Following Liver Transplantation

  • Walid S. Ayoub
  • Carlos O. Esquivel
  • Paul Martin


The aphorism that reconstruction of the biliary anastomosis is the “Achilles heel” of liver transplantation remains valid as biliary complications following liver transplantation remain a major source of morbidity with an incidence of 5–32%. Biliary complications include biliary strictures, biliary leaks, and stones. Biliary strictures can be divided into anastomotic and non-anastomotic. The management of biliary complications previously relied on surgical intervention. However, advances in endoscopic and radiological interventions have resulted in less-invasive options. The management of biliary complications post-liver transplantation requires a multidisciplinary approach and continues to evolve. Biliary complications also reflect the continued expansion of the donor pool with extended, live, and non-heart beating donors.


Anastomotic strictures Non-anastomotic strictures Liver transplantation Biliary complications Bilomas Stones 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walid S. Ayoub
    • 1
  • Carlos O. Esquivel
    • 2
  • Paul Martin
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Gastroenterology and HepatologyStanford UniversityPalo AltoUSA
  2. 2.Division of Transplantation, Institute for Immunity, Transplantation and InfectionStanford UniversityPalo AltoUSA
  3. 3.Division of HepatologyUniversity of Miami Miller School of MedicineMiamiUSA

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