Digestive Diseases and Sciences

, Volume 54, Issue 7, pp 1386–1402 | Cite as

Avoiding Pitfalls: What an Endoscopist Should Know in Liver Transplantation—Part II

  • Sharad SharmaEmail author
  • Ahmet Gurakar
  • Cemalettin Camci
  • Nicolas Jabbour


Over the last decade the number of patients undergoing transplantation has increased. At the same time, effective peri- and postoperative care and better surgical techniques have resulted in greater numbers of recipients achieving long-term survival. Identification and effective management in the form of adequate treatment is essential, since any delay in diagnosis or treatment may result in graft loss or serious threat to patient’s life. Various aspects of endoscopic findings that can be commonly encountered among liver transplant recipients are discussed herein. Topics include: persistent and/or recurrent esophageal varices, reflux, Candida or cytomegalovirus (CMV) esophagitis, esophageal neoplasms, posttransplant peptic ulcer, biliary complications, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), Kaposi’s sarcoma, CMV colitis and inflammatory bowel disease, colonic neoplasms, Clostridium difficile infection, and graft versus host disease (GVHD).


Endoscopy Liver transplant Varices Candida Reflux Esophagitis Neoplasm Peptic ulcer CMV PTLD Kaposi sarcoma Colitis Inflammatory bowel disease Clostridium difficile GVHD 



The authors wish to acknowledge Dr. Camci for help with the clinical photographs in the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sharad Sharma
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ahmet Gurakar
    • 1
  • Cemalettin Camci
    • 1
  • Nicolas Jabbour
    • 1
  1. 1.Nazih Zuhdi Transplant InstituteOklahoma CityUSA

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