Digestive Diseases and Sciences

, Volume 52, Issue 10, pp 2884–2887 | Cite as

Age and Indication for Referral to Capsule Endoscopy Significantly Affect Small Bowel Transit Times: The Given Database

  • Zvi FiremanEmail author
  • Yael Kopelman
  • Shosh Friedman
  • Hagit Ephrath
  • Eran Choman
  • Hila Debby
  • Rami Eliakim
Original Article


The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of age and selected indications for capsule endoscopy on small bowel transit times. Data on 67 clinical studies (790 subjects with different gastrointestinal pathologies [49.5% males; mean age, 51.9 ± 18.33 years; range, 18–91 years] and 87 healthy volunteers) were retrieved from the company (Given Imaging, Ltd.)-sponsored database. All subjects swallowed the PillCam SB Capsule after a 12-hr fast. The capsule reached the cecum in all 877 participants. Indications for referral for capsule endoscopy were as follows: 372 obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, 96 suspected Crohn’s disease, 65 celiac disease, 54 irritable bowel syndrome, and 116 familial adenomatous polyposis, intestinal lymphoma, or ulcerative colitis. One group consisted of patients <40 years old (n = 235), and the other patients 40 years old (n = 555). The younger group, volunteers, and Crohn’s disease patients had significantly shorter small bowel transit times than the others (P < 0.001). Gastric emptying indirectly influenced capsule transit time.


Capsule endoscopy Small bowel transit time Gastrointestinal pathologies Gastric emptying Age Gender 



Esther Eshkol is thanked for editorial assistance.


  1. 1.
    Iddan G, Meron G, Glukhovsky A, Swain P (2000) Wireless capsule endoscopy. Nature 405:417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Scapa E, Jacob H, Lewkowic S, Migdal M, Gat D, Gluckhovski A, Fireman Z (2002) Results of the first clinical studies performed in Israel with wireless capsule endoscopy. Am J Gastroenterol 97:2776–2779PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Costamagna G, Shah SK, Riccioni ME, Foschia F, Mutignani M, Perri V, Vecchioli A, Brizi MG, Picciocchi A, Marano P (2002) A prospective trial comparing small bowel radiographs and video capsule endoscopy for suspected small bowel disease. Gastroenterology 123:1385–1388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ell C, Remke S, May A, Helou L, Henrich R, Mayer G (2002) The first prospective controlled trial comparing wireless capsule endoscopy with push enteroscopy in chronic gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopy 34:685–689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fireman Z, Mahajna E, Broide E, Shapiro M, Fish L, Sternberg A, Kopelman Y, Scapa E: Diagnosing small bowel Crohn’s disease with wireless capsule endoscopy. Gut 52:390–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mylonaki M, Fritscher-Ravens A, Swain P (2003) Wireless capsule endoscopy: a comparison with push enteroscopy in patients with gastroscopy and colonoscopy negative gastrointestinal bleeding. Gut 502:1122–1126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chong AKD, Taylor ACF, Miller AM, Desmond PVD (2003) Initial experience with capsule endoscopy at major referral hospital. Med J Aust 178:537–540PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hartmann D, Schilling D, Bolz G, Hahne M, Jakobs R, Siegel E, Weickert U, Adamek HE, Riemann JF (2003) Capsule endoscopy versus push enteroscopy in patients with occult gastrointestinal bleeding. Z Gastroenterol 41:377–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Eliakim R, Fischer D, Suissa A, Yassin K, Katz D, Guttman N, Migdal M (2003) Wireless capsule video endoscopy is a superior diagnostic tool in comparison to barium follow-through and computerized tomography in-patients with suspected Crohn’s disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 15:363–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Swain P (2003) Wireless capsule endoscopy. Review. Gut 52(Suppl 4):iv48–iv50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fireman Z, Fish L, Mahajna E, Kopelman Y, Sternberg A, Scapa E (2004) Effect of colon preparation on gastric and small bowel (SB) transit time of capsule endoscopy. IMAJ 6:521–523PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Selby W (2005) Complete small-bowel transit in patients undergoing capsule endoscopy: determining factors and improvement with metoclopramide. Gastrointest Endosc 61:80–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Niv Y, Niv G (2004) Capsule endoscopy: role of bowel preparation in successful visualization. Scand J Gastroenterol 39:1005–1009PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Viazis N, Sgouros S, Papaxoinis K, Vlachogiannakos J, Bergele C, Sklavos P, Panani A, Avgerinos A (2004) Bowel preparation increases the diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy: a prospective, randomized, controlled study. Gastrointest Endosc 60:534–538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Husebye E (1999) The pattern of small bowel motility: physiology and implication in organic disease and functional disorders. Neurogastroenterol Motil 11:141–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kellow JE, Borody TJ, Phillips SF (1986) Human interdigestive motility: variations in patterns from esophagus to colon. Gastroenterology 91:386–340PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zvi Fireman
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Yael Kopelman
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shosh Friedman
    • 3
  • Hagit Ephrath
    • 3
  • Eran Choman
    • 3
  • Hila Debby
    • 3
  • Rami Eliakim
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of GastroenterologyHillel Yaffe Medical CenterHaderaIsrael
  2. 2.Bruce Rapaport Faculty of MedicineThe TechnionHaifaIsrael
  3. 3.Given Imaging, Ltd.YoqneamIsrael
  4. 4.Department of GastroenterologyRambam Medical CenterHaifaIsrael

Personalised recommendations