Digestive Diseases and Sciences

, Volume 53, Issue 8, pp 2233–2237 | Cite as

Cytokine Levels of TGF-β, IL-10, and sTNFαRII in Type C Chronic Liver Disease

Original Paper


Cytokines play a key role in regulation of immunity and inflammation. The aim of the study was to detect serum levels of TGF-β, IL-10, and sTNFαRII in patients with type C chronic liver disease (CLD) and to correlate these with biochemical and histopathological parameters used to assess the severity of the disease. Blood samples were aseptically collected from 90 CLD patients. Cytokine levels were also followed up in 39 chronic hepatitis cases. Levels of the cytokines in 90 CLD patients were significantly higher than in controls. In the follow up patients, 12 were non-responders and the serum levels of cytokines were still elevated after therapy whereas in 27 responders cytokine levels were significantly reduced after therapy and correlated well with biochemical and histopathological parameters. It is inferred that cytokine levels reflect the level of inflammation in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and can be used as indirect markers to assess the severity of liver disease.


Hepatitis C virus Cytokine levels of TGF-β, IL-10, sTNFαRII 



Authors thankfully acknowledge the financial support of Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India to carry out this work and providing Senior Research Fellowship to Mr Vikas Verma.


  1. 1.
    Jacobson Brown PM, Neuman MG (2001) Immunopathogenesis of hepatitis C viral infection: Th1/Th2 responses and the role of cytokines. Clin Biochem 34:167–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chakravarti A, Verma V, Jain M, Kar P (2005) Characteristic of dual infection of hepatitis B and C viruses among patients with chronic liver disease: a study from tertiary care hospital. Trop Gastroenterol 26:183–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chowdhury A, Santra A, Chaudhuri S, Bhattacharya SK, Naik TN (2003) Hepatitis C virus infection in the general population: a community based study in West Bengal, India. Hepatology 37:802–809PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Larrea E, Garcia N, Qian C, Civeira MP, Prieto J (1996) Tumor necrosis factor alpha gene expression and the response to interferon in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 23:210–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pestka S, Krause CD, Sarkar D, Walter MR, Shi Y, Fisher PB (2004) Interleukin-10 and related cytokines and receptors. Annu Rev Immunol 22:929–979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Neuman MG, Benhamou JP, Bourliere M, Ibrahim A, Malkiewiez I, Asselah T, Martinot-Peignoux M, Shear NH, Katz GG, Akremi R, Benali S, Boyer N, Lecomte L, Le Breton V, Le Guludec G, Marcellin P (2002) Serum tumour necrosis factor-α and transforming growth factor-β levels in chronic hepatitis C patients are immunomodulated by therapy. Cytokine 17:108–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Becker C, Fantini MC, Neurath MF (2006) TGF-β as a T cell regulator in colitis and colon cancer. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 17:97–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Abayli B, Canataroglu A, Akkiz H (2003) Serum profile of T helper 1 and T helper 2 cytokines in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Turk J Gastroenterol 14:7–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kakumu S, Okumura T, Ishikawa T, Yano M, Enomoto A, Nishimura K, Yoshioka K, Yoshikai Y (1997) Serum levels of IL-10, IL-15 and soluble tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF α) receptors in type C chronic liver disease. Clin Exp Immunol 109:458–463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ray S, Broor SL, Vaishnav Y, Sarkar C, Girish R, Dar L, Seth P, Broor S (2003) Transforming growth factor beta in hepatitis C virus infection: in vivo and in vitro findings. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 18:393–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zylberberg H, Rimanio AC, Pol S, Masson A, Groote DD, Berthelot P, Bach JF, Brechot C, Zavala F (1999) Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors in chronic hepatitis C: a correlation with histological fibrosis and activity. J Hepatol 30:185–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Goodman ZD, Ishak KG (1995) Histopathology of hepatitis C virus infection. Semin Liver Dis 15:70–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mellor J, Walsh EA, Prescott LE, Jarvis LM, Davidson F, Yap PL, Simmonds P (1996) International HCV collaborative study group: survey of type 6 group variants of hepatitis C virus in South-East Asia by using a core-based genotyping assay. J Gen Virol 34:417–423Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stoll-Keller F, Schvoerer E, Thumann C, Navas MC, Aubertin AM (2003) Immunomodulating effect of HCV during the development of chronic hepatitis C: toward new therapeutic approaches. Bull Acad Natl Med 187:1147–1160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Neuman MG, Benhamou J, Malkiewiez IM, Akremi R, Shear MH, Asselah T, Ibrahim A, Boyer N, Martinot-Peignoux M, Jacobson-Brown P, Katz GG, Le Breton V, Le Guludec G, Suneja A, Marcellin P (2001) Cytokines as predictors for sustained response and as markers for immunomodulation in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Clin Biochem 34:173–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zekri ARN, Ashour MSE, Hasan A, Ei-Din HMA, Ei-Shehaby AMR, Abu-Shady MA (2005) Cytokine profile in Egyptian HCV genotype-4 in relation to liver disease progression. World J Gastroenterol 11:6624–6630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tai DI, Tsai SL, Chen TC, Lo SK, Chang YH, Liaw YF (2001) Modulation of tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 in chronic hepatitis B and C: the difference and implications in pathogenesis. J Biomed Sci 8:321–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vikas Verma
    • 1
  • Anita Chakravarti
    • 1
    • 2
  • Premashis Kar
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyMaulana Azad Medical College & Associated Lok Nayak HospitalsNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.New DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of MedicineMaulana Azad Medical College & Associated Lok Nayak HospitalsNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations