Digestive Diseases and Sciences

, Volume 52, Issue 2, pp 523–525 | Cite as

Repeat Endoscopy for Recurrent Iron Deficiency Anemia: An (Un)Expected Finding from Southeast Asia

  • Sanjiv Mahadeva
  • Choon-Seng Qua
  • Wan Yusoff
  • Wan Sulaiman
Case Report


Refractory anemia Hookworm Southeast Asia 


  1. 1.
    Bampton PA, Holloway RH (1996) A prospective study of the gastroenterological causes of iron deficiency anaemia in a general hospital. Aust NZ J Med 26:793–799Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zuckerman G, Benitez J (1993) A prospective study of bidirectional endoscopy (colonoscopy and upper endoscopy) in the evaluation of patients with occult gastrointestinal bleeding. Am J Gastroenterol 87:62–66Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rockey DC, Koch J, Cello JP, Sanders LL, McQuaid K (1998) Relative frequency of upper gastrointestinal and colonic lesions in patients with positive fecal occult blood tests. N Engl J Med 339:153–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rockey DC, Cello JP (1993) Evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract in patients with iron deficiency anemia. N Engl J Med 329:1691–1695PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zuckerman GR, Prakash C, Askin MP, Lewis BS (2000) AGA technical review of the evaluation and management of occult and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Gastroenterology 118:201–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Iddan G, Meron G, Glukhovsky A, Swain P (2000) Wireless capsule endoscopy. Nature 405:417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mylonaki M, Fritscher-Ravens A, Swain P, et al. (2003) Wireless capsule endoscopy: a comparison with push enteroscopy in patients with gastroscopy and colonoscopy negative bleeding. Gut 52:1122–1126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    de Silva NR, Brooker S, Hotez PJ, et al. (2003) Soil-transmitted helminth infections: updating the global picture. Trends Parasitol 19:547–551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hotez PJ, Brooker S, Bethony JM, et al. (2004) Hookworm infection. N Engl J Med 351:799–807PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ogilvie BM, Bartlett A, Godfrey RC, et al. (1978) Antibody responses in self-infections with Necator americanus. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 72:66–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kato T, Kamoi R, Iida M, Kihara T (1997) Endoscopic diagnosis of hookworm disease of the duodenum. J Clin Gastroenterol 24:100–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Genta RM, Woods KL (1991) Endoscopic diagnosis of hookworm infection. Gastrointest Endosc 37:476–478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Goka AK, Rolston DD, Mathan VI, Farthing MJ (1990) Diagnosis of strongyloides and hookworm infections: comparison of faecal and duodenal fluid microscopy. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 84:829–831PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zaman A, Katon RM (1998) Push enteroscopy for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding yields a high incidence of proximal lesions within reach of a standard endoscope. Gastrointest Endosc 47:372–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chak A, Koehler MK, Sundaram SN, et al. (1998) Diagnostic and therapeutic impact of push enteroscopy: analysis of factors associated with positive findings. Gastrointest Endosc 47:18–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chong J, Tagle M, Barkin JS, Reiner DK (1994) Small bowel push-type fiberoptic enteroscopy for patients with occult gastrointestinal bleeding or suspected small bowel pathology. Am J Gastroenterol 89:2143–2146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Spiller RC, Parkins RA (1983) Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding of obscure origin: report of 17 cases and a guide to logical management. Br J Surg 70:489–493PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sanjiv Mahadeva
    • 1
  • Choon-Seng Qua
    • 1
  • Wan Yusoff
    • 2
  • Wan Sulaiman
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Parasitology, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations