Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 5–33 | Cite as

Automatic Subspace Clustering of High Dimensional Data

  • Rakesh AgrawalEmail author
  • Johannes Gehrke
  • Dimitrios Gunopulos
  • Prabhakar Raghavan


Data mining applications place special requirements on clustering algorithms including: the ability to find clusters embedded in subspaces of high dimensional data, scalability, end-user comprehensibility of the results, non-presumption of any canonical data distribution, and insensitivity to the order of input records. We present CLIQUE, a clustering algorithm that satisfies each of these requirements. CLIQUE identifies dense clusters in subspaces of maximum dimensionality. It generates cluster descriptions in the form of DNF expressions that are minimized for ease of comprehension. It produces identical results irrespective of the order in which input records are presented and does not presume any specific mathematical form for data distribution. Through experiments, we show that CLIQUE efficiently finds accurate clusters in large high dimensional datasets.


subspace clustering clustering dimensionality reduction 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rakesh Agrawal
    • 1
    Email author
  • Johannes Gehrke
    • 2
  • Dimitrios Gunopulos
    • 3
  • Prabhakar Raghavan
    • 4
  1. 1.IBM Almaden Research CenterSan Jose
  2. 2.Computer Science DepartmentCornell UniversityIthaca
  3. 3.Department of Computer Science and Eng.University of California RiversideRiverside
  4. 4.Verity, Inc.Germany

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