Design Automation for Embedded Systems

, Volume 21, Issue 3–4, pp 157–172 | Cite as

Analysis of design strategies for unmanned aerial vehicles using co-simulation

  • José de Sousa Barros
  • Thyago Oliveira Freitas
  • Vivek Nigam
  • Alisson V. Brito
Article

Abstract

Designing critical embedded systems, like UAVs is not a trivial task because it brings the challenge of dealing with the uncertainty that is inherent to this type of systems, e.g., winds, GPS uncertainty, etc. Simulation and verification tools that provide a level of confidence can help design such systems and increase the safety of specified cyber-physical systems before deployment. This paper presents a framework for evaluating flight strategies of UAVs. Our framework is constructed by integrating, using high-level architecture, Ptolemy, a high level specification tool, and SITL/Ardupilot, a domain specific UAV simulator. It allows to evaluate flight strategies under the presence of uncertainty, such as winds, with a level of confidence by constructing a sufficiently large number of simulations. Its effectiveness is demonstrated by testing two different flight strategies in two scenarios under different wind intensities. We measure the flight quality providing quantitative information about the quality of the tested flight strategy, such as distance traveled, with a confidence of 95% and error of 8%.

Keywords

Co-simulation UAV Testing 

References

  1. 1.
    Luo C, McClean S, Parr G, Teacy L, De Nardi R (2013) UAV position estimation and collision avoidance using the extended Kalman filter. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 62(6):2749–2762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lam T, Boschloo H, Mulder M, van Paassen M (2009) Artificial force field for haptic feedback in UAV teleoperation. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern Part A Syst Hum 39(6):1316–1330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Teacy W, Nie J, McClean S, Parr G (2010) Maintaining connectivity in UAV swarm sensing. In: IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops (GC Wkshps), December 2010, pp 1771–1776Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ptolemaeus C (ed) (2014) System design, modeling, and simulation using Ptolemy II. Ptolemy.org. [Online]. http://ptolemy.org/books/Systems
  5. 5.
    de Sousa Barros J, Oliveira T, Nigam V, Brito AV (2016) A framework for the analysis of UAV strategies using co-simulation. In: VI Brazilian symposium on computing systems engineering (SBESC), November 2016, pp 9–15Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    IEEE standard for modeling and simulation (M&S) high level architecture (HLA)—framework and rules. In: IEEE Std 1516–2010 (Revision of IEEE Std 1516–2000)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    ArduPilot Dev Team (2016) SITL/Ardupilot Simulator (Software in the Loop). http://ardupilot.org/dev/docs/sitl-simulator-software-in-the-loop.html
  8. 8.
    Forin A, Neekzad B, Lynch NL (2006) Giano: the two-headed system simulator. Microsoft Research, Tech. Rep. MSR-TR-2006-130, September 2006. http://research.microsoft.com/apps/pubs/default.aspx?id=70343
  9. 9.
    Accellera, The language for system-level modeling, design and verification. Accellera, Tech. Rep., October 2015. http://accellera.org/community/systemc/about-systemc
  10. 10.
    Cheung PH, Hao K, Xie F (2007) Component-based hardware/software co-simulation. In: Digital system design architectures, methods and tools. 10th Euromicro Conference on DSD 2007, August 2007, pp 265–270Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ren C, Huang Y, Chen H, Tian G (2014) Control software development of drive motor for electric vehicles. In: Transportation electrification Asia-Pacific (ITEC Asia-Pacific), 2014 IEEE Conference and Expo, August 2014, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hsu Y-T, Wen Y-J, Wang S-D (2007) Embedded hardware, software design and cosimulation using user mode linux and systemc. In: Parallel processing workshops, International Conference on ICPPW 2007, September 2007, pp 17–17Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fitzgerald J, Pierce K, Larsen P (2014) Co-modelling and co-simulation in the engineering of systems of cyber-physical systems. In: 2014 9th International conference on system of systems engineering (SOSE), June 2014, pp 67–72Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brito AV, Bucher H, Oliveira H, Costa LFS, Sander O, Melcher EUK, Becker J (2015) A distributed simulation platform using HLA for complex embedded systems design. In: 2015 IEEE/ACM 19th international symposium on distributed simulation and real time applications (DS-RT), October 2015, pp 195–202Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lasnier G, Cardoso J, Siron P, Pagetti C, Derler P (2013) Distributed simulation of heterogeneous and real-time systems. In: 2013 IEEE/ACM 17th international symposium on distributed simulation and real time applications, October 2013, pp 55–62Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kanduri A, Rahmani AM, Liljeberg P, Wan K, Man KL, Plosila J (2013) A multicore approach to model-based analysis and design of cyber-physical systems. In: 2013 International SoC design conference (ISOCC), November 2013, pp 278–281Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brito AV, Negreiros AV, Roth C, Sander O, Becker J (2013) Development and evaluation of distributed simulation of embedded systems using ptolemy and HLA. In: Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE/ACM 17th international symposium on distributed simulation and real time applications. IEEE Computer Society, pp 189–196Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    IEEE standard for modeling and simulation (M&S) high level architecture (HLA)—federate interface specification. IEEE Std 1516.1-2010 (Revision of IEEE Std 1516.1-2000), pp 1–378, August 2010Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    IEEE standard for modeling and simulation (M&S) high level architecture (HLA)—object model template (OMT) specification. IEEE Std 1516.2-2010 (Revision of IEEE Std 1516.2-2000)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Negreiros ALV, Brito AV (2012) The development of a methodology with a tool support to the distributed simulation of heterogeneous and complexes embedded systems. In: Brazilian symposium on computing system engineering (SBESC), November 2012, pp 37–42Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Federal University of Paraiba (UFPB)João PessoaBrazil
  2. 2.FortissMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations