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Therapeutic microRNAs in human cancer

  • Gizem Ors-Kumoglu
  • Sultan Gulce-Iz
  • Cigir Biray-Avci
Review Article

Abstract

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are RNA molecules at about 22 nucleotide in length that are non-coding, which regulate gene expression in the post-transcriptional level by performing degradation or blocks translation of the target mRNA. It is known that they play roles in mechanisms such as metabolic regulation, embryogenesis, organogenesis, differentiation and growth control by providing post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. With these properties, miRNAs play important roles in the regulation of biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, drug resistance mechanisms in eukaryotic cells. In addition, there are miRNAs that can be used for cancer therapy. Tumor cells and tumor microenvironment have different miRNA expression profiles. Some miRNAs are known to play a role in the onset and progression of the tumor. miRNAs with oncogenic or tumor suppressive activity specific to different cancer types are still being investigated. This review summarizes the role of miRNAs in tumorigenesis, therapeutic strategies in human cancer and current studies.

Keywords

Cancer therapy miRNA mimic miRNA antagonists miRNA sponges miRNA masking 

Abbreviations

miRNA

MicroRNA

RISC

RNA-induced silencing complex

oncomiR

Oncogenic miRNA

tsmiR

Tumor suppressor miRNA

UTR

Unstranslated region(s)

anti-miR(s)

Anti-miRNA oligonucleotides

NSCLC

Non-small-cell lung cancer

antagomiR(s)

miRNA antagonists

PTEN

Phosphatase and tensin homolog

VEGF

Vascular epidermal growth factor

SOCS1

Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1

AMOs

Anti-miRNA oligonucleotides

HCN1

Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel 1

Notes

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of EngineeringEge UniversityIzmirTurkey
  2. 2.Biomedical Technologies Graduate Programme, Institute of Natural and Applied SciencesEge UniversityIzmirTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of MedicineEge UniversityIzmirTurkey

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