, Volume 70, Issue 6, pp 1537–1550 | Cite as

The anti-angiogenic potential of (±) gossypol in comparison to suramin

  • Gönül UlusEmail author
  • A. Tansu Koparal
  • Kemal Baysal
  • Günay Yetik Anacak
  • N. Ülkü Karabay Yavaşoğlu
Original Article


Cotton, a staple fiber that grows around the seeds of the cotton plants (Gossypium), is produced throughout the world, and its by products, such as cotton fibers, cotton-seed oil, and cottonseed proteins, have a variety of applications. Cotton-seed contains gossypol, a natural phenol compound. (±)-Gossypol is a yellowish polyphenol that is derived from different parts of the cotton plant and contains potent anticancer properties. Tumor growth and metastasis are mainly related to angiogenesis; therefore, anti-angiogenic therapy targets the new blood vessels that provide oxygen and nutrients to actively proliferating tumor cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-angiogenic potential of (±)-gossypol in vitro. (±)-Gossypol has anti-proliferative effects on cancer cell lines; however, its anti-angiogenic effects on normal cells have not been studied. Anti-proliferative activities of gossypol assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, anti-angiogenic activities using tube formation assay, and cell migration inhibition capability using a wound-healing assay on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were revealed. (±)-Gossypol displayed the following potent anti-angiogenic activities in vitro: it inhibited the cell viability of HUVECs, it inhibited the migration of HUVECs, and disrupted endothelial tube formation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the anti-angiogenic effects of (±)-gossypol were investigated in ovo in a model using a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Decreases in capillary density were assessed and scored. (±)-Gossypol showed dose-dependent anti-angiogenic effects on CAM. These findings suggest that (±)-gossypol can be used as a new anti-angiogenic agent.


Anti-angiogenesis (±)-Gossypol Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) Suramin 



This study was supported by the Scientific Research Council of Ege University (Project No: 2011-FEN-006).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest associated with this study or its results.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology, Faculty of ScienceEge UniversityIzmirTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Biology, Faculty of ScienceAnadolu UniversityEskisehirTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of MedicineDokuz Eylül UniversityIzmirTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of PharmacyEge UniversityIzmirTurkey

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