Advertisement

Cytotechnology

, Volume 65, Issue 3, pp 335–345 | Cite as

Stem cells for reprogramming: could hUMSCs be a better choice?

  • Paulina Duya
  • Yuhong Bian
  • Xiaoqian Chu
  • Yanjun Zhang
Review Paper

Abstract

Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUMSC) are primitive multipotent cells capable of differentiating into cells of different lineages. They can be an alternative source of pluripotent cells since they are ethically and regulatory approved, are easily obtained and have low immunogenicity compared to embryonic stem cells which are dogged with numerous controversies. hUMSC can be a great source for cell and transplantation therapy.

Keywords

Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells Embryonic stem cells Pluripotency Reprogramming 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 81072741), National Basic Research Program of China (“973 Program”) (2011CB505300-02), Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (no. IRT0973) and Tianjin Research Program Of Application Foundation And Advanced Technology (No.09jcybjc).

References

  1. Aasen T, Raya A, Barrero MJ, Garreta E, Consiglio A, Gonzalez F, Vassena R, Bilić J, Pekarik V, Tiscornia G, Edel M, Boué S, Izpisúa Belmonte JC (2008) Efficient and rapid generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human keratinocytes. Nat Biotechnol 26:1276–1284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anzalone R, Lo Iacono M, Corrao S, Magno F, Loria T, Cappello F, Zummo G, Farina F, La Rocca G (2010) New emerging potentials for human Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells: immunological features and hepatocyte-like differentiate capacity. Stem Cells Dev 19:423–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barry FP, Murphy JM (2004) Mesenchymal stem cells: clinical applications and biological characterization. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 36:568–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blank U, Karlsson G, Karlsson S (2008) Signaling pathways governing stem cell fate. Blood 111:492–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blum B, Benvenisty N (2005) Differentiation in vivo and in vitro of human embryonic stem cells. In: Bongso A, Lee EH (eds) Stem cells: from bench to bedside. World Scientific, Singapore, pp 123–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blum B, Benvenisty N (2008) The tumorigenicity of human embryonic stem cells. Adv Cancer Res 100:133–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brenner MK (2004) Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for autoimmune disease; limits and future potential. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 17:359–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brimble SN, Zeng X, Weiler DA, Luo Y, Liu Y, Lyons IG, Freed WJ, Robins AJ, Rao MS, Schulz TC (2004) Karyotypic stability, genotyping, differentiation, feeder-free maintenance and gene expression sampling in three human embryonic stem cells lines derived prior to Aug 9, 2001. Stem Cells Dev 13:585–595Google Scholar
  9. Buja LM, Vela D (2010) Immunologic and inflammatory reactions to exogenous stem cells. J Am Coll Cardiol 56:1693–1700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cai J, Li W, Su H, Qin D, Yang J, Zhu F, Xu J, He W, Guo X, Labuda K, Peterbauer A, Wolbank S, Zhong M, Li Z, Wu W, So KF, Redl H, Zeng L, Esteban MA, Pei D (2010) Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from umbilical cord matrix and amniotic membrane mesenchymal cells. J Biol Chem 285:11227–11234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cao H, Qian H, Xu W, Zhu W, Zhang X, Chen Y, Wang M, Yan Y, Xie Y (2010) Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human umbilical cord ameliorate ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure in rats. Biotechnol Lett 32:725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chambers I, Tomlison SR (2009) The transcriptional foundation of pluripotency. Development 136:2311–2322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chang YJ, Shih DT, Tseng CP, Hsieh TB, Lee DC, Hwang SM (2006a) Disparate mesenchyme-lineage tendencies in mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow and umbilical cord blood. Stem Cells 24:679–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chang YJ, Tseng CP, Hsu LF, Hsieh TB, Hwang SM (2006b) Characterization of two populations of mesenchymal progenitor cells in umbilical cord blood. Cell Biol Int 30:495–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chao KC, Chao KF, Fu YS, Liu SH (2008) Islet-like clusters derived from mesenchymal stem cells in Wharton’s Jelly of the human umbilical cord for transplantation to control type 1 diabetes. PLoS ONE 3:e1451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen Y, Shao JZ, Xiang XL, Dong XJ, Zhang GR (2008) Mesenchymal stem cells; A promising candidate in regenerative medicine. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 40:815–820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chunliang L, Junmei Z, Guilai S, Yu M, Yang Y, Junjie G, Hongyao Y, Shibo J, Zhe W, Fang C, Ying J (2009) Pluripotency can be rapidly and efficiently induced in human amniotic fluid derived cells. Hum Mol Genet 18:4340–4349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dazzi F, Fozza C (2007) Diseases relapse after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; risk factors and treatment. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 20:311–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Draper JS, Smith K, Gokhale P, Moore HD, Maltby E, Johnson J, Meisner L, Zwaka TP, Thomson JA, Andrew PW (2004) Recurrent gain of chromosomes 17q and 12 in cultured human embryonic stem cells. Nat Biotechnol 22:53–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Drukker M, Katz G, Urbach A, Schuldiner M, Markel G, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Reubinoff B, Mandelboim O, Benvenisty N (2002) Characterisation of the expression of MHC proteins in human embryonic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:9864–9869Google Scholar
  21. Eggan K, Baldwin K, Tackett M, Osborne J, Gogos J, Chess A, Axel R, Jaenisch R (2004) Mice cloned from olfactory sensory neurons. Nature 428:44–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Erices A, Conget P, Minguell JJ (2000) Mesenchymal progenitor cells in human umbilical cord blood. Br J Haematol 109:235–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Findikli N, Candan NZ, Kahraman S (2006) Human embryonic stem cell culture; current limitations and novel strategies. Reprod Biomed Online 13:581–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fortunel N, Batard P, Hatzfeld A, Monier MN, Panterne B, Lebkowski J, Hatzfeld J (1998) High proliferative potential quiescent cells; a working model to study primitive quiescent hematopoietic cells. J Cell Sci 111:1867–1875Google Scholar
  25. Fu YS, Cheng YC, Lin MY, Cheng H, Chu PM, Chou SC, Shih YH, Ko MH, Sung MS (2006) Conversion of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in Wharton’s jelly to dopaminergic neurons in vitro: potential therapeutic application for Parkinsonism. Stem Cells 24:115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fumio A, Toshio J (2007) Maintenance of quiescent hematopoietic stem cells in the osteoblastic niche. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1106:41–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gutierrez- Rodriguez M, Reyes-Maldonado E, Mayani H (2000) Characterization of the adherent cells developed in Dexter-type long-term cultures from human umbilical cord blood. Stem Cells 18:46–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Herrero C, Pérez-Simón JA (2010) Immunomodulatory effect of mesenchymal stem cells. Braz J Med Biol Res 43:425–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Huang X, Cho S, Spangrude GJ (2007) Hematopoietic stem cells; generation and self renewal. Cell Death Differ 14:1851–1859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ishige I, Nagamura T, Honda MJ, Harnprsopwat R, Kido M, Sugimoto M, Nakauchi H, Tojo A (2009) Comparison of mesenchymal stem cells derived from arterial, venous and Wharton’s jelly explants of human umbilical cord. Int J Hematol 90:261–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Itskovitz-Eldor J, Schuldiner M, Karsenti D, Eden A, Yanuka O, Amit M, Soreq H, Benvenisty N (2000) Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into embryoid bodies comprising the three embryonic germ layers. Mol Med 6:88–95Google Scholar
  32. Jung Y, Song J, Shiozawa Y, Wang J, Wang Z, Williams B, Havens A, Schneider A, Ge C, Franceschi RT, McCauley LK, Krebsbach PH, Taichman RS (2008) Hematopoietic stem cells regulate mesenchymal stromal cell induction into osteoblasts thereby participating in the formation of stem cell niche. Stem Cells 26:2042–2051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kang XQ, Zang WJ, Bao LJ, Li DL, Xu XL, Yu XJ (2006) Differentiating characterization of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Cell Biol Int 30:569–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Karahuseyinoglu S, Cinar O, Kilic E, Kara F, Akay GG, Demiralp DO, Tukun A, Uckan D, Can A (2007) Biology of stem cells in human umbilical cord stroma: in situ and in vitro surveys. Stem Cells 25:319–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kato Y, Tani T, Tsunada y (2000) Cloning of calves from various somatic cell types of male and female adult newborn and fetal cows. J Reprod Fertil 120:231–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kern S, Eichler H, Stoeve J, Klüter H, Bieback K (2006) Comparative analysis of mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, or adipose tissue. Stem Cells 24:1294–1301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kim SW, Han H, Chae GT, Lee SH, Bo S, Yoon JH, Lee YS, Lee KS, Park HK, Kang KS (2006) Successful stem cell therapy using umbilical cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells for Buerger’s disease and ischemic limb disease animal model. Stem Cells 24:1620–1626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kim JY, Jeon HB, Yang YS, Oh W, Chang JW (2010) Application of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in disease models. World J Stem Cells 2:34–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kobayashi H, Butler JM, O’Donnell R, Kobayashi M, Ding BS, Bonner B, Chiu VK, Nolan DJ, Shido K, Benjamin L, Rafii S (2010) Angiocrine factors from Akt-activated endothelial cells balance self renewal and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells. Nat Cell Biol 12:1046–1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Konrad H, Kathrin P (2009) Epigenetic and induced pluripotency. Development 136:509–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Krampera M, Pasini A, Pizzolo G, Cosmi L, Romagnani S, Annunziato F (2006) Regenerative and immunomodulatory potential of mesenchymal stem cells. Curr Opin Pharmacol 6:435–4180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lagasse E, Connors H, Dhalimy AL, Reitsma M, Dohse M, Osborne l, Wang X, Finegold M, Weissman L, Grompe M (2000) Purified hematopoietic stem cells can differentiate into hepatocytes in vivo. Nat Med 6:1229–1234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lee MW, Choi J, Yang MS, Moon YJ, Park JS, Kim HC, Kim YJ (2004) Mesenchymal stem cells from cryopreserved human umbilical cord blood. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 320:273–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lee HJ, Lee JK, Lee H, Shin JW, Carter JE, Sakamoto T, Jin HK, Bae JS (2010) The therapeutic potential of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurosci Lett 481:30–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Li C, Zhou J, Shi G, Ma Y, Yang Y, Gu J, Yu H, Jin S, Wei Z, Chen F, Jin Y (2009) Pluripotency can be rapidly and efficiently induced in human amniotic fluid-derived cells. Hum Mol Genet 18:4340–4349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lu LL, Liu YJ, Yang SG, Zhao QJ, Wang X, Gong W, Han ZB, Xu ZS, Lu YX, Liu D, Chen ZZ, Han ZC (2006) Isolation and characterization of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells with haematopoiesis-supportive function and other potentials. Haematologica 91:1017–1026Google Scholar
  47. Lu X, Alshemali S, Wynter EA, Dickinson A (2010) Mesenchymal stem cells from CD34 (-) human umbilical cord blood. Transfus Med 20:178–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Luis TC, Weerkamp F, Naber BA, Baert MR, de Haas EF, Nikolic T, Heuvelmans S, De Krijger RR, Van Dongen JJ, Staal FJ (2009) Wnt 3a deficiency irreversibly impairs hematopoietic stem cell self renewal and leads to defects in progenitor cell differentiation. Blood 113:546–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ma L, Feng XY, Cui BL, Law F, Jiang XW, Yang LY, Xie QD, Huang TH (2005) Human umbilical cord Wharton’s Jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiation into nerve-like cells. Chin Med J (Engl) 118:1987–1993Google Scholar
  50. Magnusson M, Brun AC, Miyake N, Larsson J, Ehinger M, Bjornson JM, Wutz A, Sigvardsson M, Karlsson S (2007) HoxA10 is a critical regulator for hematopoietic stem cells and erythroid/megakaryocytic development. Blood 109:3687–3696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mareschi K, Biasin E, Piacibello W, Aglietta M, Madon E, Fagioli F (2001) Isolation of human mesenchymal stem cells: bone marrow versus umbilical cord blood. Haematologica 86:1099–1100Google Scholar
  52. Martin GR (1981) Isolation of pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultures in medium conditioned by teratocarcinoma stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:7634–7636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Martin G, Roger P (2010) Notch signaling and hematopoietic stem cell formation during embryogenesis. J Cell Physiol 222:11–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Matsuzuka T, Rachakatla RS, Doi C, Maurya DK, Ohta N, Kawabata A, Pyle MM, Pickel L, Reishman F, Troyer D, Tamura M (2010) Human umbilical cord matrix-derived stem cells expressing interferon-β gene significantly attenuate bronchioloalveolar carcinoma xenografts in SCID mice. Lung Cancer 70:28–36Google Scholar
  55. Mehrotra M, Rosol M, Ogawa M, Larue AC (2010) Amelioration of a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; micro computed tomography studies. Exp Haematol 38:593–602Google Scholar
  56. Micha D, Nissim B (2004) The immunogenicity of human embryonic stem derived cells. Trends Biotechnol 22:136–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Michael H, Lars N, Justin CW (2008) The hematopoietic stem cell niche; what are we trying to replicate. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 83:421–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Morigi M, Rota C, Montemurro T, Montelatici E, Lo Cicero V, Imberti B, Abbate M, Zoja C, Cassis P, Longaretti L, Rebulla P, Introna M, Capelli C, Benigni A, Remuzzi G, Lazzari L (2010) Life-sparing effect of human cord blood-mesenchymal stem cells in experimental acute kidney injury. Stem Cells 28:513–522Google Scholar
  59. Nishiyama N, Miyoshi S, Hida N, Uyama T, Okamoto K, Ikegami Y, Miyado K, Segawa K, Terai M, Sakamoto M, Ogawa S, Umezawa A (2007) The significant cardi myogenic potential of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Stem Cells 25:2017–2024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Niwa H (2007) How is pluripotency determined and maintained? Development 134:635–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Oh W, Kim DS, Yang YS, Lee JK (2008) Immunological properties of umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. Cell Immunol 251:116–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Przyboski SA (2005) Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells after transplantation in immune-deficient mice. Stem Cells 23:1242–1250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rubinstein P, Rosenfield RE, Adamson JW, Stevens CE (1993) Stored placental blood for unrelated bone marrow reconstitution. Blood 81:1679–1690Google Scholar
  64. Sarugaser R, David L, Bakshi D, Hosseini MM, Davies JE (2005) Human umbilical cord perivascular (HUPVC) cells; a source of mesenchymal progenitors. Stem Cells 23:220–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Seo KW, Lee SR, Bhandari DR, Roh KH, Park SB, So AY, Jung JW, Seo MS, Kang SK, Lee YS, Kang KS (2009) OCT4A contributes to the stemness and multi-potency of human umbilical cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 384:120–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Servais S, Baron F, Beguin Y (2011) Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) after reduced intensity conditioning. Transfus Apher Sci 44:205–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Seung H, Eunji G, Jeong JA, Chiyoung A, Soo H, Yang IH, Park HK, Han H, Kim H (2005) In vitro differentiation of human umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 330:1153–1161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sobolewski K, Bankowski E, Chyczewski L, Jaworski S (1997) Collagens and glycosaminoglycans of the Wharton’s jelly. Biol Neonate 71:11–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Solter D (2006) From teratocarcinomas to embryonic stem cells and beyond; a history of embryonic stem cell research. Nat Rev Genet 7:319–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Stuart H, Leonard IZ (2008) Haematopoiesis; an evolving paradigm for stem cell biology. Cell 132:631–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Suaudeau J (2011) From embryonic stem cells to iPS - an ethical perspective. Cell Prolif 44:70–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sun B, Yu KR, Bhandari DR, Jung JW, Kang SK, Kang KS (2010) Human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular matrix prohibits metastatic cancer cell MDA-MB-231 proliferation. Cancer Lett 296:178–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sykes M, Nikolic B (2005) Treatment of severe autoimmune diseases by stem-cell transplantation. Nature 435:620–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Thomson JA, Itskovitz-Eldor Shapiro J, Waknitz SS, Swiergiel MA, Marshall JJ, Jones JM (1998) Embryonic stem cells derived from human blastocyst. Science 282:1145–1147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Till JE, Mcculloch EA (1961) A direct measurement of radiation sensitivity of normal mouse bone marrow cells. Radiat Res 14:213–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Till JE, Mcculloch EA, Siminovitch L (1963) The distribution of colony-forming cells among spleen colonies. J Cell Comp Physiol 62:327–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tsai SY, Clavel C, Kim S, Ang YS, Grisanti L, Lee DF, Kelley K, Rendl M (2010) Oct4 and klf4 reprogram dermal papilla cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. Stem Cells 28:221–228Google Scholar
  78. Wagers AJ, Sherwood RI, Christensen JL, Weismann IL (2002) Little evidence for developmental plasticity of adult hematopoietic stem cells. Science 297:2256–2259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wang HS, Hung SC, Peng ST, Huang CC, Wei HM, Guo YJ, Fu YS, Lai MC, Chen CC (2004) Mesenchymal stem cells in the Wharton’s jelly of the human umbilical cord. Stem Cells 22:1330–1337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wang M, Yang Y, Yang D, Luo F, Liang W, Guo S, Xu J (2009) The immunomodulatory activity of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Immunology 126:220–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wang Y, Fan H, Zhou B, Ju Z, Yu L, Guo L, Han J, Lu S (2012) Fusion of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells with esophageal carcinoma cells inhibits the tumorigenicity of esophageal carcinoma cells. Int J Oncol 40:370–377Google Scholar
  82. Weiss ML, Medicetty S, Bledsoe AR, Rachakatla RS, Choi M, Merchav S, Luo Y, Rao MS, Velagaleti G, Troyer D (2006) Human umbilical cord matrix stem cells; preliminary characterization and effect of transplantation in a rodent model of Parkinson’s disease. Stem Cells 24:781–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Weiss ML, Anderson C, Medicetty S, Seshareddy KB, Weiss RJ, VanderWerff I, Troyer D, McIntosh KR (2008) Immune properties of human umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly-derived cells. Stem Cells 26:2865–2874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wilmut A, Schnieke E, Mcwhir J, Kind AJ, Campbell KSH (1997) Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells. Nature 385:810–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wilson A, Oser GM, Jaworski M, Blanco-Bose WE, Laurenti E, Adolphe C, Essers MA, Macdonald HR, Trumpp A (2007) Dormant and self renewing hematopoietic stem cells and their niches. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1106:64–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wu JY, Scadden DT, Kronenberg HM (2009) Role of osteoblast lineage in the bone marrow hematopoietic niches. J Bone Miner Res 24:759–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Xie H, Ye M, Feng R, Graf T (2004) Stepwise reprogramming of B cells into macrophages. Cell 117:663–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Yan Y, Xu W, Qian H, Si Y, Zhu W, Cao H, Zhou H, Mao F (2009) Mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cords ameliorate mouse hepatic injury in vivo. Liver Int 29:356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Yuri AR, Veronica AS, Vladmir NS (2003) Searching for alternative sources of post natal human mesenchymal stem cells; candidate msc like cells from the umbilical cord. Stem Cells 21:105–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Zhang YN, Lie PC, Wei X (2009) Differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells derived from umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly into hepatocyte-like cells. Cytotherapy 11:548–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zhang HT, Fan J, Cai YQ, Zhao SJ, Xue S, Lin JH, Jiang XD, Xu RX (2010) Human Wharton’s jelly cells can be induced to differentiate into growth factor-secreting oligodendrocyte progenitor-like cells. Differtiation 79:15–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zhao Q, Ren H, Li X, Chen Z, Zhang X, Gong W, Liu Y, Pang T, Han ZC (2009) Differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells into low immunogenic hepatocyte-like cells. Cytotherapy 11:414–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Zon LI (2008) Intrinsic and extrinsic control of hematopoietic stem cell self renewal. Nature 453:306–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paulina Duya
    • 1
  • Yuhong Bian
    • 1
  • Xiaoqian Chu
    • 1
  • Yanjun Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese MedicineNankai districtChina

Personalised recommendations