Evaluating the biodegradability of Gelatin/Siloxane/Hydroxyapatite (GS-Hyd) complex in vivo and its ability for adhesion and proliferation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells
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Recent studies have shown that the use of biomaterials and new biodegradable scaffolds for repair or regeneration of damaged tissues is of vital importance. Scaffolds used in tissue engineering should be biodegradable materials with three-dimensional structures which guide the growth and differentiation of the cells. They also tune physical, chemical and biological properties for efficient supplying of the cells to the selected tissues and have proper porosity along with minimal toxic effects. In this manner, the study of these characteristics is a giant stride towards scaffold design. In this study, Gelatin/Siloxane/Hydroxyapatite (GS-Hyd) scaffold was synthesized and its morphology, in vivo biodegradability, cytotoxic effects and ability for cell adhesion were investigated using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The cells were treated with different volumes of the scaffold suspension for evaluation of its cytotoxic effects. The MSCs were also seeded on scaffolds and cultured for 2 weeks to evaluate the ability of the scaffold in promoting of cell adhesion and growth. To check the biodegradability of the scaffold in vivo, scaffolds were placed in the rat body for 21 days in three different positions of thigh muscle, testicle, and liver and they were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and weight changes. According to the results of the viability of this study, no cytotoxic effects of GS-Hyd scaffold was found on the cells and MSCs could adhere on the scaffold with expanding their elongations and forming colonies. The rate of degradation as assessed by weight loss was significant within each group along with significant differences between different tissues at the same time point. SEM micrographs also indicated the obvious morphological changes on the surface of the particles and diameter of the pores through different stages of implantation. The greatest amount of degradation happened to the scaffold particles implanted into the muscle, followed by testicle and liver, respectively.
KeywordsTissue engineering Gelatin/Siloxane/Hydroxyapatite scaffold Biodegradability Mesenchymal stem cells Tissue regeneration
This work was partly supported by the grant number Sci-1385-21145 from Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran and the GS-Hyd scaffold was filed as a patent (Number 51213).
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