Advertisement

Clinical Social Work Journal

, Volume 43, Issue 3, pp 263–273 | Cite as

What Clinical Social Workers Need to Know: Bio-psycho-social Knowledge and Skills for the Twenty First Century

  • Joan BerzoffEmail author
  • James Drisko
Original Paper

Abstract

In this paper, we define clinical social work and the current context of practice. We then discuss social work education, the changes we have noted in the last 10–15 years, including those that have been detrimental to clinical social work training. Most prominent are the de-emphasis of supervision and of psychodynamic theories and practice. Next, we define what we see as essential knowledge and skills for training future clinical social workers. We speculate on what future mental health service needs may be and argue for maintaining a biopsychosocial, and psychodynamic perspective in training and in the practice of clinical social work.

Keywords

Future of clinical social work Psychodynamic theory Biopsychosocial knowledge and skills Social work education 

References

  1. American Board of Examiners in Clinical Social Work. (2002). Professional development and practice competencies in clinical social work. Retrieved from https://www.abecsw.org/images/Competen.PDF
  2. Aron, L. (1996). A meeting of minds. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press.Google Scholar
  3. Aron, L., & Harris, A. (2011). Relational psychoanalysis V: Evolution of process. New York, NY: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  4. Badger, K., Royse, D., & Craig, C. (2008). Social workers indirect trauma experience. Health Social Work, 33(11), 63–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Basham, K. (2011). Trauma theories and disorders. In L. M. Flanagan, P. Hertz, & J. Berzoff (Eds.), Inside out and outside. Psychodynamic clinical theory and psychopathology in contemporary multicultural contexts (pp. 440–474). Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bateman, E. W., & Fonagy, P. (2003). The development of an attachment based treatment program for borderline personality disorders. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 67(3), 187–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beddoe, L., & Howard, F. (2012). Interprofessional supervision in social work and psychology: Mandates and (inter) professional responsibility. The Clinical Supervisor, 31(2), 178–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Belcher, J., Pecukonis, E., & Knight, C. (2011). Where have all the teachers gone: The selling out of social work education. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 29(3), 195–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Benjamin, J. (2009). A Relational psychoanalysis perspective on the necessity of acknowledging failure in order to restore the facilitating and containing features of the intersubjective relationship and shared third. International J Psychoanalysis, 90, 441–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berzoff, J. (2008). Working at the end of life: Providing relationally based end-of-life care. Clinical Social Work Journal, 36(2), 177–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berzoff, J. (2011). Freud’s psychodynamic concepts. In J. Berzoff, L. Flanagan, & P. Hertz (Eds.), Inside out and outside. Psychodynamic clinical theory and psychopathology in contemporary multicultural contexts (pp. 18–48). Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  12. Berzoff, J. (2012). Why we need a biopsychosocial perspective in working with those most at risk. In J. Berzoff (Ed.), Falling through the cracks: Psychodynamic practice with vulnerable and oppressed populations (pp. 1–40). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Berzoff, J., & Drisko, J. (2013). The academy’s responsibility for preparing 21st century social work practitioners. In Invited paper presented at the Group for the Advancement of Doctoral Education [GADE] Annual Conference, Richmond, VA.Google Scholar
  14. Berzoff, J., & Drisko, J. (2015). Preparing PhD-level clinical social work practitioners: An ongoing responsibility of the academy. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 35(1–2), 82–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Berzoff, J., Hertz, P., & Flanagan, L. M. (Eds.). (2011). Introduction. Inside out and outside. Psychodynamic clinical theory and psychopathology in multicultural contexts. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  16. Berzoff, J., & Silverman, P. (Eds.). (2008). Living with dying: A handbook for end of life care practitioners, introduction (pp. 2–12). New York, NY: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Brekke, J. (2012). Shaping a science of social work. Research on Social Work Practice, 22(5), 455–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brenner, C. (1995). An elementary textbook in psychoanalysis. New York: IUP Press.Google Scholar
  19. Caarns, A. (2014). Understanding new rules that widen mental health coverage. http://www.nytimes.ms/1gn7vb8
  20. Carter, R. (2007). Racism and psychological and emotional injury: Recognizing and assessing race based traumatic stress. Counseling Psychologist, 35(1), 13–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2010). Caseload and workload management. Retrieved from www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/case_work_management/
  22. Cohen, J. A. (2003). Managed care and the evolving role of the social worker in mental health. Social Work, 48(1), 34–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cozolino, L., & Santos, E. (2014). Why we need therapy- and why it works: A neuroscientific perspective. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 84(2–3), 157–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cunningham, J. (2003). The impact of trauma work on social work clinicians: Empirical findings. Social Work, 48(4), 450–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Drisko, J. (2013). Revisiting clinical learning in social work education. Eda Goldstein memorial lecture. New York: New York University School of Social Work.Google Scholar
  26. Drisko, J. (2014). What is clinical social work? In Paper presented at the Smith College School for Social Work. Northampton, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  27. Drisko, J., Berenson, L., & Hunnicutt, C. (2015). A national content analysis of PhD program objectives and curriculum: Do programs address the full range of social work’s needs? Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 35(1–2), 14–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Drisko, J., & Grady, M. (2012). Evidence-based practice in clinical social work. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Drisko, J., & Simmons, B. (2012). The evidence base for psychodynamic psychotherapy. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 82(4), 374–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dubois, C. (2012). Introduction. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 82(2–3), 113–115.Google Scholar
  31. Ewalt, P. (Ed.). (1978). Toward a definition of clinical social work. Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers.Google Scholar
  32. Fagan-Wilen, R., Springer, R., Ambrisino, B., & White, B. (2006). The support of adjunct faculty: An academic imperative. Social Work Education, 25(1), 35–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fonagy, A., & Roth, P. (2005). What works for whom? A critical review of psychotherapy research. NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  34. Friedman, L., Luborsky, S., et al. (2001). The penn psychoanalytic treatment collection: A set of complete and recorded psychoanalyses as a research resource. Journal of Psychoanalytic Association, 49(1), 217–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gabriel, T. (2010). Mental health: Needs seen growing at colleges. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/20/health.html
  36. Glover, R., Miller, J., & Sadowski, S. (2012). Proceedings on the state budget crisis and the behavioral health treatment gap. Retrieved from www.nasmhpd.org/docs/Summary-Congressional%20Briefing_March%2022_Website.pdf
  37. Goldstein, E. (1996). What is clinical social work? Looking back to move ahead. Clinical Social Work Journal, 24, 89–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Goldstein, E. (2007). Social work education and clinical learning: Yesterday, today and tomorrow. Clinical Social Work Journal, 35, 15–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Goodenough, A. (2014). Expansion of mental health care hits obstacles. Retrieved from http://nytimes.com/2014/08/28/us/expansion-of-mental-health-care-hits-
  40. Groshong, L. (2009). Clinical social work practice and regulation: An overview. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  41. Herman, J. L. (1997). Trauma and recovery: The aftermath of violence from domestic abuse to political terror [(Previous ed.: 1992) ed.]. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  42. Hodgkin, D., Horgan, C., Garnick, D., & Merrick, E. (2009). Benefit limits for behavioral health care in private U.S. health plans. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research36(1), 15–23.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hong, J. S., & Eamon, M. K. (2012). Students’ perceptions of unsafe schools: An ecological analysis. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21, 428–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Insel, T. (2008). Assessing the economic costs of serious mental illness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 663–669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Insel, T. (2011). The economics of health care reform. Retrieved from www.nimh.nih.gov/about/director/2011/the-economics-of-health-care-reform.shtml
  46. Institute of Medicine. (2006). Committee on crossing the chasm: Adaption to mental health and addictive disorders. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  47. Johnson, Y., & Munch, S. (2010). Faculty with practice experience: The new dinosaurs in the social work academy? Journal of Social Work Education, 46(1), 57–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking fast and slow. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.Google Scholar
  49. Kelly, M. S., Berzin, S. C., Frey, A., Alvarez, M., Shaffer, G., & O’Brien, K. (2010). The state of school social work: Findings from the national school social work survey. School Mental Health, 2, 132–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kita, E. (2012). Making it thinkable: A psychodynamic approach to the problems of prisoners and prisons. In J. Berzoff (Ed.), Falling through the cracks: Psychodynamic practice with vulnerable and oppressed populations (pp. 40–75). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Knight, C. (2001). The process of field instruction: BSW and MSW views of effective supervision. Journal of Social Work Education, 37(2), 357–379.Google Scholar
  52. Kokaliari, E., Byers, D., & Berzoff, J. (2014.) Social work under occupation: The Palestinian student perspective, in press, Journal of Teaching and Social Work.Google Scholar
  53. Kristof, N., (2014b). Inside a mental hospital called jail. www.nytimes.com/2014/02/09/sundatinside-a-mental-hospital-called-jail.html?-r=0.
  54. Lawson, R. R., & McHenry, K. (2011). Emerging opportunities for palliative care social workers. In T. Altilio & S. A. Green (Eds.), Oxford textbook of palliative social work (pp. 351–358). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lechman, C., & Duder, S. (2009). Hospital length of stay: Social work services as an important factor. Social Work in Health Care, 48, 495–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Leichenring, F., & Rabung, S. (2008). Effectiveness of long term psychotherapy: A meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association, l, 13, 1551–1565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Leuptnitz, D. (2002). Schopenhaur’s porcupines: Intimacy and it’s dilemmas: five stories of psychotherapy. NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  58. Miehls, D., & Applegate, J. (2014). Introduction to neurobiology and clinical work. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 84(2–3), 140–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Montgomery, A. (2014). Selected neurobiological arousal issues as manifested in a clinical case illustration. Smith Studies in Social Work, 4(2–3), 196–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. National Association of Social Workers. (2007). Social workers strong role in children’s mental health. Retrieved from https://www.socialworkers.org/pressroom/2007/050207.asp
  61. National Association of Social Workers. (2008). Code of ethics. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  62. National Association of Social Workers. (2014). Children and families. Retrieved November 2014 from http://www.naswdc.org/pressroom/features/issue/children.asp
  63. Norcross, J. & Lambert, M. (2011). Evidence based therapy relationships. In J. Norcross (Ed.) Evidence based therapy relationships. Retrieved from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s/Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices at www.nrepp.samshsa.gov/Norcross.aspx
  64. O’Shea, B. (2012). Psychiatric patients with no place to go but jail. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/19/health/in-chicago-mental-health-patients-have-no-place-to-go.html
  65. Pearlman, C. (2013). Adjuncts in social work programs: Good practice or unethical? Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 33(2), 209–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Safran, J. D., & Muran, J. C. (1996). The resolution of ruptures in the therapeutic alliance. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 447–458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sandler, E. (2009). Behavioral health versus mental health. Psychology Today Online. Retrieved from www.psychologytoday.com/blog/promoting-hope-preventing-suicide/200910/behavioral-health-versus-mental-health
  68. Schore, A. N. (2003). Affect dysregulation and disorders of the self. NY: Norton.Google Scholar
  69. Schore, J. R., & Schore, A. N. (2014). Regulation theory and affect regulation psychotherapy: A clinical primer. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 84(2–3), 178–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Segal, C. (2012). We’re cool, you and me, a relational approach to clinical social work in the city with homeless women. In J. Berzoff (Ed.), Falling through the cracks: Psychodynamic practice with vulnerable and oppressed populations (pp. 75–107). New York: Columbia U. Press.Google Scholar
  71. Shedler, J. (2010). The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 65(2), 98–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Siegal, D. J. (1999). The developing mind: Toward a neurobiology of interpersonal experience. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  73. Simpson, G., Williams, J., & Segall, A. (2007). Social work education and clinical learning. Clinical Social Work Journal, 35, 3–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Social Work Policy Institute. (2010). Professional social workers in child welfare work: Research addressing the recruitment and retention dilemma. http://www.socialworkpolicy.org/research/child-welfare-2.html
  75. Social Work Policy Institute. (2013). Action BriefEnhancing the well-being of America’s veterans and their families: A call to action for a national veterans policy. http://www.socialworkpolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/swpiuscveteranactionbrief.pdf
  76. Sotak, J. (2014). What’s in Veterans affairs’ $164 billion budget. http://atwar.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/03/20/whats-in-veterans-affairs-164-billion-budget/
  77. Steinberg, D., Mills, D, Romano, M. (2013). When did prisons become acceptable mental health facilities? Stanford Law School Three Strikes Project. https://www.Law.stanford.edu
  78. Suchet, M. (2007). Unraveling Whiteness. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 17(68), 867–886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Van der Kolk, B. A. (2003). The neurobiology of childhood trauma and abuse. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics, 12, 293–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wilson, D. (2009). Poor children likelier to get antipsychotics. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/12/health/12.medicaid/html
  81. Winerip, B., & Swirtz, M. (2014). New York City health services for mentally ill. Accessed February 12.Google Scholar
  82. Zastrow, C., & Bremner, J. (2004). Social work education responds to the shortage of persons with both a doctorate and a professional social work degree. Journal of Social Work Education, 40(2), 351–358.Google Scholar
  83. Zilberstein, K. (2014). Trauma’s neurobiological toll: implications for children. Smith Studies in Social Work, 84(2–3), 292–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Smith College School for Social WorkNorthamptonUSA

Personalised recommendations