An Exploratory Study of Influences on Vulnerabilities to Family Violence Among Vietnamese Wives Who Marry South Korean Men
This article describes an exploratory study of why Vietnamese women who migrate to marry South Korean men are vulnerable to abuse. Inductive qualitative analysis of data from 22 Vietnamese wives who experienced abuse reveals inconsistencies in their expectations and their Korean husbands’ and in-laws’ expectations about their roles and influence in their Korean families and their provision of assistance to their Vietnamese families. A marriage broker system in both Vietnam and Korea supports these inconsistent expectations. Abuse and control result when Korean husbands and in-laws act to enforce their expectations of the women’s role in the family and to prevent their leaving the home.
KeywordsDomestic Violence Monthly Household Income Korean Language Social Service Provider Vietnamese Woman
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Byun, W., Lee, M., Kim, H., Hwang, J., & Lee, S. (2008). 결혼이민자여성의 가정폭력피해현황과지원체계개선방안 [Domestic violence against marriage immigrants and support enhancements]. Seoul: Korean Women’s Development Institute.Google Scholar
- Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Chiu, S. W., & Wong, R. K. (2009). A literature review on family policy in four East Asian countries. Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
- Goh, H., Kim, H. M., Soh, R., Kim, J. S., & Kim, J. (2005). 국제결혼 중계 시스템: 베트남, 필리핀 현지 실태 조사 [International marriage broker system: Survey report in Vietnam and the Philippines]. Seoul: Presidential Committee on Social Inclusion.Google Scholar
- Jones, G. (2012). International marriage in Asia: What do we know and what do we need to know? ARI working paper no. 174. Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore.Google Scholar
- Kim, H. K. (2012). Marriage migration between South Korea and Vietnam: A gender perspective. Asian Perspective, 36(3), 531–563.Google Scholar
- Kim, H. M. (2015). Intimacies and remittances: The material bases for love and intimate labor between Korean men and their foreign spouses in South Korea. In S. L. Friedman & P. Mahdavi (Eds.), Migrant encounters: Intimate labor, the state, and mobility across Asia (pp. 25–45). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
- Kim, M. H. (2015). Issues in the international marriage brokerage business according to information asymmetry in South Korea with alternative suggestions. Advanced Science and Technology Letters, 119, 73–77.Google Scholar
- Kim, S. J. (2003). The economic status and role of ethnic Koreans in China. In C. F. Borgatta & I. Choi (Eds.), The Korean diaspora in the world economy (pp. 101–127). Washington, DC: Peterson Institute for International Economics.Google Scholar
- Kwaak, J. (February 7, 2014). South Korea tightens rules on marriages to foreigners. The Wall Street Journal. http://blogs.wsj.com/korearealtime/2014/02/07/south-korea-tightens-rules-on-marriages-to-foreigners/.
- Le, D. B., Truong, T., & Khuat, T. H. (2014). Transnational marriage migration and the East Asian family-based welfare model: Social reproduction in Vietnam, Taiwan, and South Korea. In T. Truong, D. Gasper, J. Handmaker, & S. I. Bergh (Eds.), Migration, gender and social Justice: Perspectives on human insecurity (Vol. 9, pp. 87–103). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Levitt, P. (2011). Constructing gender across borders: A transnational approach. In E. N. Chow, M. T. Segal, & L. Tan (Eds.), Analyzing gender, intersectionality, and multiple inequalities: Global, transnational and local contexts. Advances in gender research (Vol. 15, pp. 163–183). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- MacLean, D. (2014). Marriage migrants and commercial marriage trafficking in South Korea: Mapping the current legal regime and gaps in addressing exploitation. KLRI Journal of Law and Policy, 4(1), 3–51.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Gender Equality and Families, Korean Women’s Development Institute. (2013). 2012년 전국 다문화가족 실태 조사 연구 [A study on the National Survey of Multicultural Families 2012]. Seoul: Ministry of Gender Equality and Families.Google Scholar
- Minot, N., Baulch, B., & Epprecht, M. (2006). Poverty and inequality in Vietnam: Spatial patterns and geographic determinants. Research report no. 148. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.Google Scholar
- Nguyen, P. (2007). An analysis of decision processes for marriage migration of Vietnamese women with Taiwanese men (Master’s thesis). ProQuest Dissertation and Theses database (UMI No. 1442385).Google Scholar
- Nguyen, X., & Tran, X. (2010). Vietnamese-Taiwanese marriages. In W. Yang & M. C. Lu (Eds.), Asian cross-border marriage migration: Demographic patterns and social issues (pp. 157–176). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
- Pham, B. T. (2013). Cross-border marriage migration between Vietnam and Korea: Focusing up on life of Vietnamese brides in Korea (Doctoral dissertation, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan). http://dspace.lib.kanazawa-u.ac.jp/dspace/handle/2297/37396.
- Seol, D. (2006). Women marriage immigrants in Korea: Immigration process and adaptation. Asia-Pacific Forum, 33, 32–59.Google Scholar
- Seol, D., Kim, Y., Kim, H., Yoon, H., Lee, H. K., Yim, K., et al. (2005). 국제결혼 이주여성 실태조사 및 보건 복지 지원 정책 방안 [Foreign wives’ life in Korea: Focusing on the policy of welfare and health]. Kwachon: Ministry of Health and Welfare.Google Scholar
- Seol, D., Lee, H. K., & Cho, S. (2006). 결혼이민자 가족 실태조사 및 중장기 지원 정책 방안 연구 [Survey on international marriage female migrants and policy measures for health welfare support]. Seoul: Ministry of Gender Equity & Family.Google Scholar
- Song, J. (2015). Five phases of brokered international marriages in South Korea: A complexity perspective. Asian Studies, 1(1), 147–176.Google Scholar
- Song, J. (2016). The politics of immigrant incorporation policies in Korea and Japan. Asian Perspective, 40(1), 1–26.Google Scholar
- Statistics Korea. (2008). Household income & expenditure trends in the fourth quarter and in 2007. http://kostat.go.kr/portal/eng/pressReleases/6/1/index.board?bmode=read&bSeq=&aSeq=272817&pageNo=4&rowNum=10&navCount=10&currPg=&sTarget=title&sTxt=.
- Statistics Korea. (2015). 국제결혼현황 [Current status of international marriage]. http://www.index.go.kr/potal/main/EachDtlPageDetail.do?idx_cd=2430.
- Than, T. T. H. (2006). 국제결혼 베트남 이주여성의 현실과 적응: 메콩델타지역 농촌 여성의 사례를 중심으로 [The reality and adaption of Vietnamese women in cross-cultural marriages: the case of Mekong Delta women in Korea] (Unpublished master’s thesis). Seongnam, Korea: The Academy of Korean Studies.Google Scholar
- Thao, N. T. (2016b). Family life stress, coping, and mental health among Vietnamese marriage migrant women in South Korea: A Mixed Methods Study. VNU Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2(2), 194–212.Google Scholar
- Wie, D., & Lee, H. (2015). Legal entitlement and bargaining power of marriage immigrants in Korea. GRIPS discussion papers. https://grips.repo.nii.ac.jp/?action=pages_view_main&active_action=repository_view_main_item_detail&item_id=1282&item_no=1&page_id=13&block_id=24.
- Yang, H. (2011). “Multicultural families” in South Korea: A socio-legal approach. North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation, 37(1), 47–81.Google Scholar
- Yoon, J. (November 22, 2015). Multicultural marriages decreasing. The Korea Times. http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/biz/2016/02/123_191568.html.